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[雅思培训]黄蓉:雅思写作中如何做到同义替换

来源:朗阁教育 2016-03-09 编辑:朗阁小编 雅思托福0元试学

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下面朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师就给大家介绍个缓解燃眉之急的好方法—同义转换法。这个方法能够帮助同学们在作文时尽量避免使用同样的词汇和句式。


朗阁海外考试研究中心  黄蓉


考生们经常在雅思写作中遇到词穷或者句穷的情况,因而导致一篇文章出现大量重复而没有营养的词汇和简单的句式,很多同学辩解说自己背了很多词汇和句型,所谓的高频词汇,常用句型,甚至背了阅读的大词大句,但是写作的时候就想不起来,或者不太会使用,很纠结不知道到底怎么回事。

 

其实阅读和写作是两种不同的英语习得能力,一个考察输入,一个考察输出,输入就是你记忆了很多词和句子,或者背了之后再次遇到可以依稀记得意思,但是输出的能力必须是你背了词汇和句子,并且能够INTERNALIZE(内化)之后,并且经过PRACTICE才能熟练的输出。同学们听到这里就觉得输出比输入难很多了,并且练习作文也是同学们非常害怕的一件事,那有没有既不需要很多的练习,还能够输出较好的词汇的方法呢?

 

下面朗阁海外考试研究中心的雅思培训就给大家介绍个缓解燃眉之急的好方法—同义转换法。这个方法能够帮助同学们在作文时尽量避免使用同样的词汇和句式,但是这个方法也需要在大家有了一定词汇积累的情况下才能使用,所以天下没有白吃的午餐。No pains, no gains. 以下给大家介绍几种同义转换的方法。

 

一、同义异形词

写作当中的同义异形词主要就是考察学生的词汇量,主要靠大家通过联想记忆习得的高频词汇。大家在写作中*常出现的是第三人称的“人们”这个词汇,基本上每篇作文都要有主人公,一半以上都是普通大众,那么写作中大家是如何使用的呢?除了用 “people”,还使用其它词汇吗?

 

People = individuals = person = man = human = human being = masses = crowd = throng = mob = the general population

 

这些词汇都是“人们”的意思,只有轻微差别,如:masses(含褒义)是指ordinary people 大众;crowd(中性)是指a large group of people gathered close to one another;the mass of people, especially those considered to be drearily ordinary or anonymous也是大众,也有拥挤的人群的意思;Throng(文学)是指a crowd of people or animals;而mob(贬义)就指暴民了,a large or disorderly crowd especially one bent on violent action。下面我们来体会一下这些同义词在写作中的不同的例子:

 

Example:

1. old buildings with historic importance serve as mementos of mementos events, famous persons (people), or national spirit.(建筑类话题)

2. Culture is a multiplied domain consisting of language, clothing, foods, customs and so on, for which mixed cultures in one county not only enlarge individual’s (people’s) vision, but also enrich their culture.(文化类话题)

3. With the upgrading of human beings (people)’ living standard, domestic products and native events can no longer meet their needs.(生活类话题)

4. Men (people) are not ready for the age of artificial intelligence.(科技类话题)

5. It is the government that should do anything to protect the interests of masses.(政府类话题)

6. Too much exposing of crime details increase the worry about the disquieting society among crowd.(犯罪类话题)

7. Reducing the working time was highly supported by the jubilant throng.(工作生活类)

8. Crimes are sometimes committed by people who are in poverty, not mobs.(犯罪类)

 

其次再举一个常用例子:“重要的”这个词也是大家在作文中经常使用到的一个高频词汇,基本上每篇文章都要扯到某某东西或者某某人很重要,那么大家一般除了使用 ”important” 之外还使用什么词汇呢?

 

Important = significant = critical = crucial = urgent = indispensable = essential = necessary = requisite = vital = momentous = noteworthy

 

这些同义词意思上也是有轻微差别的:

critical是指:having the potential to become disastrous; at a point of crisis至关重要到有可能变灾难

necessary是指:required to be done, achieved

urgent是指:requiring immediate action or attention

indispensable是指:absolutely necessary

essential是指:extremely important

requisite是指:made necessary by particular circumstance or regulations.(比较正式)

momentous是指:of utmost importance

 

Example:

1. Handwritings of a person are significant (important) for it makes letters precious and memorable.(科技类话题)

2. It is necessary (important)to come up with a remedy to make up for the damages we have done to the nature.(环境类话题)

3. Surveillance on students’ study, especially young children, is indispensable.(教育类话题)

4. Food is essential (important) for our human beings.(生活类话题)

5. The flood waters had not receded and the situation was still critical.(环境类话题)

6. It is most urgent that government should allocate enough money on medical care for dying patients.(政府类话题)

7. Company should pay the requisite fee, if it would like to participate on the scientific research the government launched.(科技类话题)

8. Whether the momentous decision was wise or foolish will be long debated by historians.(文化类话题)

 

以上是两个同义异形词的例子,当然雅思写作中有很多这样的高频词汇的同义异形词总结,非常常用,如:

 

1. Example=instance=case=sample=illustration=specimen例子

2. Explain=interpret=illustrate=clarity=account说明

3. Famous=noted=prominent=outstanding=notorious=eminent=notable*的

4. Forecast=foretell=predict=foresee预示

5. Harmony=agreement=concord=unity=accord和谐

6. Infer=deduce=conclude=gather=judge推断

 

大家在准备同义异形词的时候首先要按照它们的意思分类,然后一定要注意它们之间细微的差别,这样才能写作既不会有重复的词汇又不会出差错。

 

二、上义词下义词 (superordinatesubordinate)

 

写作中除了直接的同义转换以外还有间接的同义转换,如上下义词汇之间的相互转换。那么什么叫上义词和下义词呢?在这里先做个解释:它们是指两个词语在语义上具有包含和被包含的关系,两者是具有从属关系的一组词。上义词指的是那些表示意义较概括的词,它们的词义包括了下义词的词义。如animal是sheep, tiger, wolf, dog等的上义词,或者tool是a hammer, a saw, a screwdriver的上义词,而rose是flower的下义词。sweeping是household chores的下义词,household chores是sweeping的上义词。上下义词之间的转换一个是在你词穷的时候给你填补的机会,多使用下义词还能够使你的文章看起来更加丰满,没有重复。这里列举几个题目来看看如何直接通过上下义词汇来拓展文章。

 

首先*常见的要数下义词,我们通过4道雅思真题来看下义词如何使用:

1. Some people believe that young people should be free to choose his or her job, while others think that they should be realist

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