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[雅思培训]张姗姗:雅思阅读填空题解题原则

来源:朗阁教育 2016-10-09 编辑:朗阁小编 雅思托福0元试学

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在雅思阅读中,填空题是除了基础题型是非无以外*简单的题型,它的难度甚至也低于对*学生来说非常熟悉的选择题。本篇雅思培训,就让朗阁老师带大家一起研究一下雅思阅读填空题的基本考点及解题原则。

朗阁海外考试研究中心  张姗姗 

在雅思阅读中,填空题是除了基础题型是非无以外*简单的题型,它的难度甚至也低于对*学生来说非常熟悉的选择题。本篇雅思培训,就让朗阁老师带大家一起研究一下雅思阅读填空题的基本考点及解题原则。

 

一、填空题常见题型

1. Summary

即用一段或几段的内容总结文章中某一段、某几段、或整篇文章的主要内容。Summary中有几个空出的单词需要大家补充完整。其中前两种情况(一段或几段)考察较多,后一种情况(全篇)考察较少。Summary本身又分为两种考察形式,种是需要考生用原文原词填空,如:

If you visit the Canadian Arctic, you immediately appreciate the problems faced by people for whom this is home. It would clearly be impossible for the people to engage in 33 as a means of supporting themselves. For thousands of years they have had to rely on catching 34 ..........................and 35........................ as a means of sustenance. The harsh surroundings saw many who tried to settle there pushed to their limits, although some were successful. The 36 ...........................people were an example of the latter and for them the environment did not prove unmanageable. For the present inhabitants, life continues to be a struggle. The territory of Nunavut consists of little more than ice, rock and a few 37 ...........................  In recent years, many of them have been obliged to give up their 38 ........................ lifestyle, but they continue to depend mainly on 39......................... for their food and clothes. 40 ......................... produce is particularly expensive.

 

另一种情况是给出选择项,考生只需在选项中选择正确答案即可,不需要自己填单词,如:

Modern cargo-handling methods have had a significant effect on 23........................... as the business of moving freight around the world becomes increasingly streamlined. Manufacturers of computers, for instance, are able to import 24..........................from overseas, rather than having to rely on a local supplier. The introduction of 25.......................... has meant that bulk cargo can be safely and efficiently moved over long distances. While international shipping is now efficient, there is still a need for governments to reduce26 ..........................in order to free up the domestic cargo sector.

A tariffs                 B components        C container ships          D output

E employees     F insurance costs    G trade                        H freight

I fares             J software              K international standards.

 

一般认为第二种考察难度稍大。但实际做题方法与种类似,只需要大家在原文中找到应该填的单词后,再在选项中找一个对应的就可以了。一般是非常简单的近义词的对应或者同一词根的不同词性。

 

2. Sentence Completion

完成句子。此题型相当于summary的简化,即考生不需要补充段落,只需要补充完整一句话即可。所以解题方法也与summary基本类似。剑9, 剑10出现此题型较多,考生应该多加重视。例题如下:

(1) EPRI receives financial support from .............. .

(2) The advantage of the technique being developed by Diels is that it can be used………........... .

(3) The main difficulty associated with using the laser equipment is related to its ............ .

 

3. Diagram/Table Completion

图表/表格填空。用图表,表格或者流程图的方式概括某处主要信息,考生同样需要把其中的空格补充完整。这种题型是填空题中难度*的一个,考试时如果考生没有时间做完整篇文章,可先将此题做完,因为它需要的解题时间少,并且取得高正确率比较容易。例题如下:

 

Early methods of producing flat glass

Method

Advantages

Disadvantages

1_______

•     Glass remained 2______

•     Slow

•     3______

Ribbon

•     Could produce glass sheets of varing 4______

•     Non-stop process

•     Glass was 5_______

•     20 of glass rubbed away

•     Machines were expensive

 

二、填空题解题技巧

文章开头*到,填空题难度较低。如果考生能掌握正确的解题技巧,很多时候在不认识单词的情况下也能找出答案来。下面我们从注意事项和解题方法两大方面来讲解此题型。

 

1. 注意题干中有无告知出题段落

填空题的题干基本都是一样的,比如summary: Complete the summary below./Complete the summary using the list of words A-I, below. 因此很多同学做题时都不会再去读题干。但有时候题干中会给出出题段落,比如剑六Climate Change and the Inuit中,summary题干就标明了出处:Complete the summary of paragraphs C and D below.这样大家可以直接去C, D两段寻找答案,节省了时间。所以做题前要快速浏览题干。

 

2. 注意题干中字数限制

一般题干中会有Choose NO MORE THAN TWO/THREE WORDS的要求。注意所填答案字数不要超过限制。这带来一个问题,那就是在没超字数限制的情况下答案的选择问题,即是填一个词还是相邻的两个词。比如,如果原文中的相邻词汇是一个形容词加名词,那答案是两者都填还是只填名词呢?如果形容词仅仅是个简单的修饰成分,那在不超字数的前*下可填可不填。比如Pulling strings to build pyramids中:they know how to use the energy of the wind from their skills as_____. 我们定位到原文:Harnessing the wind would not have been a problem for accomplished sailors like the Egyptians. 答案到底是sailors还是accomplished sailors? 因为accomplished仅仅是一个修饰sailors的形容词,所以在不超字数的情况下可填可不填。但如果两个词是一个集合或者专用名词,那么两者都要填。比如Johnson’s Dictionary中:Having rented a garret, he took on a number of ____, who stood at a long central desk. 我们定位到原文:James Boswell, his biographer, described the garret where Johnson worked as ‘fitted up like a counting house’with a long desk running down the middle at which the copying clerks would work standing up. 答案是copying clerks,不能只写clerks,因为copying clerks是一个整体,意思为书写员,只写clerks意思就不完

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