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[雅思培训]朗阁教师分享英语口语语调小技巧(2)

来源:朗阁教育 2014-04-21 编辑:PMC_Randy 雅思托福0元试学

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朗阁雅思培训教师表示:某些句型由于句尾语调的改变而引起意义改变的现象。

  朗阁雅思培训教师表示:某些句型由于句尾语调的改变而引起意义改变的现象。

  1. 使用疑问词who, which, what, how, when, where, why的特殊疑问句可以用降调也可以用升调,但含义是不同的。如:

  1) A: Mr. Smith thinks we ought to get the money in hand first.

  B: Who? (↗)

  A: Mr. Smith.

  B用升调说“Who”,表示听不清对方谈话中的某一部分,要求对方再重复那一部分。

  2) A: We''d like to have someone to say a word at the beginning to welcome the group.

  B: Who? (↙)

  A: We thought that you or Dr. Johnson might do it.

  B用降调说“Who”,其意思是问,对方想让谁在开场时致欢迎词。

  2. 附加疑问句可以读升调也可以读降调,意思是不相同的。降调表示发问者相信陈述句的内容,只等对方证实。升调表示发问者对陈述句内容的真实性没有把握,希望对方作出自己的判断。如:

  3) A: You will finish the work, won''t you? (↙)

  B:Yes, I will.

  A用降调*问,意思是:I know you will finish the work, but I want you to confirm it.

  4) A: You will finish the work, won''t you? (↗)

  B:Yes, I will.(或No, I won''t.)

  A用升调*问,表示A心中没有把握,因此,得到的回答既可能是肯定的,也可能是否定的。

  因此,如果听到下面的对话并就所*问题进行选择时,哪个选项正确也就不言而喻了。

  5) W: Mary says she likes playing tennis.

  M: But she doesn''t play tennis often, does she? (↙)

  Q: What does the man imply about Mary? (B)

  [A] She plays a lot of other sports.

  [B] She doesn''t really like tennis.

  [C] She only likes watching tennis.

  [D] She has a lot of things to do.

  3. 语调可以反应谈话人的互动性。如:

  6) A: Are you Mr. Blake?

  B: Yes. (↙)

  A: Room twenty-six.

  在这个例子中,B用降调说“Yes”,表示B的认可,这是一个封闭式的回答,这表明如果A没有新的问题要问或新的信息要告知,也许他们的对话就可以结束了。

  7) A: Are you Mr. Blake?

  B: Yes? (↗)

  A: Ah, the secretary would like a word with you.

  在这个例子中,B用升调回答“Yes”,表示这是一个开放式的回答,相当于:“Yes. But why do you ask?”或是“Yes. But who wants to know?”之意。这也就是说,B在回答A的问题的同时又向A*出了一个新问题,并要求A予以回答。

  掌握了这一点之后,对于下面的对话所*问的问题,就不难回答了。

  8) M: How long shall we stay at the Grand Canyon?

  W: A day? (↗)

  Q: What does the woman mean? (B)

  [A] We shall stay at the Grand Canyon for one day.

  [B] Shall we stay at the Grand Canyon for one day?

  [C] To stay at the Grand Canyon for one day is too short.

  [D] To stay at the Grand Canyon for one day is enough.

  4. 陈述句式一般读降调,用以陈述事实。若读升调,往往表示对所说事情的怀疑。如:

  She lent him her car. (↙)(用以陈述事实)

  She lent him her car? (↗)(表示惊奇、怀疑,含有“Did she really lend her car to him?”之意。)

  再请看下面的试题:

  9) M: I started driving at 8:00 yesterday and arrived here at 5:30 this morning.

  W: You drove all night? (↗)

  Q: What does the woman mean?

  [A] Night driving can be dangerous.

  [B] You shouldn''t have driven during the night.

  [C] Why don''t you drive all night?

  [D] Did you really drive all night?

  答案为D。

  5. 有些一般疑问句的句式读作降调,实际上表示感叹。如:Hasn''t she grown! (↙)这句话实则表示:她长得多快!请看下面的试题:

  10) M: Wasn''t Sam''s speech great! (↙)

  W: Are you serious?

  Q: What does the man say about Sam''s speech?

  [A] Sam''s speech wasn''t great, was it?

  [B] Sam''s speech was great, wasn''t it?

  [C] Sam gave a serious speech.

  [D] Sam was not serious.

  答案为B。

  这里顺便说一下,问句不表示疑问的另一种情况:当一方*出一个问题,而另一方用问句作为回答时,这个问句有时是不需要回答的,而实际上相当于陈述句,但别有意味。如:

  11) A: Are you going to watch TV again?

  B: What else is there to do? (↗)

  B反问A一个问题“What else is there to do?”,意思是:(除了看电视)还有什么好干的呢?因此,对下面的问题就不难回答了。

  12) M: Do you think Petty is qualified to do the job?

  W: If Petty is not, who is? (↗)

  Q: What does the woman mean? (C)

  [A] Petty is not qualified for the job.

  [B] Nobody is qualified for the job.

  [C] Petty is well qualified for the job.

  [D] All except Petty are qualified for the job.

  有些一般疑问句句式也不需要回答,其功能也相当于陈述句,但肯定结构表否定,否定结构表肯定,而且传递了说话人浓烈的情绪。如:

  13) W: Haven''t you got anything better to do? (↗)

  M: Ok, Mum, I''ll turn off the TV and begin to do my homework.

  显然,妈妈的意思是责备儿子不应该看电视,而应该做比看电视更有益的事,也就是说,妈妈认为儿子有更好的事可做。而对话中,儿子当然也明白妈妈的意思,因此说要关掉电视,开始做功课。再如:

  14) M: I''ve observed you for ten minutes. What have you been doing?

  W: Are you blind? (↗)

  Q: What can be inferred about the woman''s attitude toward the man? (B)

  [A] Polite.

  [B] Unfriendly.

  [C] Indifferent.

  [D] Cautious.

  女士用肯定结构的一般疑问句说“Are you blind?”,意思是说“你不是瞎子,难道看不见吗?”故而可知,女士不太友善。

  总而言之,只要英语学习者内心树立了对语调的重视意识,培养起敏感的感知能力和反应能力,经过多年的英语学习和积累,再加上我们从母语中获得的语调知识,我们肯定能成功应付语调的问题。而在听力考试中,除了我们能听得到的说话人的语音特征,如语速的*调高的语调范围及语调之外,辅之以词汇意义的上下文线索的四个选项所圈定的范围等,选出正确的选项应该不是一个困难的问题。
 
        

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