对比论述法是通过对2个以上事物或者人物的对比对论点加以说明，对比法常用的连接词有：likewise, similarly, at the same time, in contrast, nevertheless, still, instead, rather, on the contrary, after all, unlike, while, whilst等，有时候可以用条件状语从句来进行对比，也可以用介宾短语来引导对比。
1. Stability also contributes to the proliferation of fossil fuels in both industrial production and household application. A power station fuelled by coal is able to generate electricity constantly, whilst the production of a wind power station largely depends on the weather. Similarly, a household solar geyser can not work properly in rainy days when people will have to use gas water heater.
2. Teachers help students focus on what they are learning. If they are learning something by themselves, it is easy to become distracted and go on to other activities. Also, it is tempting to skip parts of the learning process they think they don’t need, which can hinder their ability to really understand the subject. By comparison, teachers keep their attention on the subject and also approach a subject logically, taking it one step at a time.
Many medical treatment and procedures have been developed from experiments on animals. Since animals share many features with humans, scientists use animals to test the safety and effectiveness of newly developed drugs before pilot testing on small groups of patients. Medical teams practice new operating techniques such as transplants on animals. Without animal testing, many procedures or new drugs would be extremely unsafe.
列举论述法用于列举观点、理由等，是五段式大作文主体段的主题句以及四段式大作文分论点常用的扩展方式。朗阁海外考试研究中心将列举法常用的连接词总结如下：initially, apart from, in addition to, moreover, furthermore, also, in addition, besides, for one thing…for another, on the other hand等。此外，有时候我们还可以用诸如from a helicopter view来进行大类视角的切换，这种也属于列举，以下我们来看几个例子：
1. Homework has many pluses. Apart from helping students do better on tests, homework helps students review and practice what has been taught in class. Homework helps improve retention and understanding; furthermore, it helps students hone their time management and organizational skills.
请注意在使用apart from或者in addition to这2个连词的时候，一般后面接续次要观点，而将主要观点放在主句中。上面的例子中，帮助学生考试考出好成绩和帮助学生复习以及练习上课的知识点都是属于回家作业的优点，但是作者认为后者更重要，因此将前者放在了这个连词后面。这种用法我们在四段式大作文主体段中经常会用到，大家务必引起重视。
2. However, reaching the conclusion that other subjects are no longer important is biased, the obvious benefits of subjects like music and sports for students cannot be denied. For one thing, learning music can cultivate one’s temperament and foster patience and consistency which are both coveted traits for the students. For another, sports energizes students, hence, they are able to plough into their studies enthusiastically and with confidence.
3. From a helicopter view, in countries, particularly developing ones, the economic advances need numerous professional talents in the fields like finance, management, legislation, medicine, thereby putting universities in a pivotal position of nurturing these professionals.
4. I feel that there are three ways that crime can be reduced. Firstly, most developed countries have a large and well-paid police force. However, they spend most of the time in cars. They need to be more visible on the street. Secondly, young people need to be educated about how they can cont