如剑8 Test 4 Passage 1 Section D
Lessons all follow the same pattern. At the beginning, the pupils put solutions to the homework on the board, then the teachers comment, correct or elaborate as necessary. Pupils mark their own homework: this is an important principle in Japanese schooling as it enables pupils to see where and why they made a mistake, so that these can be avoided in future. No one minds mistakes or ignorance as long as you are prepared to learn from them.
After the homework has been discussed, the teacher explains the topic of the lesson, slowly and with a lot of repetition and elaboration. Examples are demonstrated on the board; questions from the textbook are worked through first with the class, and then…Only rarely are supplementary worksheets distributed in a maths class. The impression is that the logical nature of the textbooks and …renders work sheets unnecessary. At this point, the teacher would circulate and make sure that all the pupils were copying well.
分析：此段属于明显的总分式结构，句“Lessons all follow the same pattern”统领整个段落，然后分别用“At the beginning”和“After the homework has been discussed”为信号，解说整个课堂的授课流程。但是这种总分式的段落结构在雅思阅读考试的文章中量不是特别大，通常占五分之一的比例。
如剑6 Test 2 Passage 1 Section B（出现转折词）
In the UK, travel times to work had been stable for at least six centuries, with people avoiding situations that required them to spend more than half an hour travelling to work. Trains and cars initially allowed people to live at greater distances without taking longer to reach their destination. However, public infrastructure did not keep pace with urban sprawl, causing massive congestion problems which now make commuting times far higher.
如剑6 Test 4 Passage 1 Paragraph E（出现相应表达把思路逆转）
But the sales push rarely stops in the office. The flashy brochures and pamphlets left by the sales reps are often followed up with meals at expensive restaurants, meetings in warm and sunny places, and an inundation of promotional gadgets. Rarely do patients watch a doctor write with a pen that isn’t emblazoned with a drug’s name, or see a nurse use a tablet not bearing a pharmaceutical company’s logo. Millions of dollars are spent by pharmaceutical companies on promotional products like coffee mugs…Money well spent? It’s hard to tell. ‘I’ve been the recipient of golf balls from one company and I use them, but it doesn’t make me prescribe their medicine,’ says one doctor. ’I tend to think I’m not influenced by what they give me.’
分析：此段也属于典型的转折式结构，但段落中并未出现明显的转折词，而是用“Money well spent? It’s hard to tell.”作为信号，通过意义上的转折，把思路逆转，转折后的内容为本段的重点内容。这种段落结构虽然在雅思阅读中极少出现，但是考生们不能忽略。
如剑6 Test 4 Passage 3 Paragraph B
Bullying is clearly unpleasant, and can make the child experiencing it feel unworthy and depressed. In extreme cases it can even lead to suicide, though this is thankfully rare. Victimized pupils are more likely to experience difficulties with interpersonal relationships as adults, while children who persistently bully are more likely to grow up to be physically violent, and convinced of anti-social offences.
分析：此段属于典型的并列式结构，段落中的三句话分别用“make”、“lead to”、“be more likely to”从不同方面讲解bullying对孩子的影响，属于并列信息。这种段落结构考生只要根据信息之间的共同点来归纳段落大意即可。在雅思阅读考试中，这种段落结构出现的频率非常高，而且量也比较大，所占比例有时高达五分之四。
如剑6 Test 4 Passage 1 C段
Selling pharmaceuticals is a daily exercise in ethical judgment. Salespeople like Schaefer walk the line between the common practice of buying a prospect’s time with a free meal, and bribing doctors to prescribe their drugs. They work in an industry highly criticized for its sales and marketing practices, but find themselves in the middle of the age-old chicken-or-egg question – business won’t use strategies that don&