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【雅思培训】阅读必备之名词性从句(下)

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在复合句中用作同位语的从句称为同位语从句 (appositive clause)。同位语从句的形式和定语从句相似。两者之前都有先行词,但是与先行词的关系不同:同位语从句与先行词同位或者等同,定语从句则与先行词是修饰关系。

     同位语从句

   在复合句中用作同位语的从句称为同位语从句 (appositive clause)。同位语从句的形式和定语从句相似。两者之前都有先行词,但是与先行词的关系不同:同位语从句与先行词同位或者等同,定语从句则与先行词是修饰关系。同位语从句的先行词多为news, fact, idea, thought, question, reply, report, remark等,关联词多用连词that。如:

 

   ★ The assumption that robots will make humans redundant and replaceable is groundless.

   认为机器人将令人类变得多余和可取代的假设是站不住脚的。

 

   ★ We should not lose sight of the fact that significantly fewer women apply for senior positions in comparison with men.

   我们不应该忽略这一事实和男性相比更少的女性申请上级职位。

 

   关联词that在非正式文体中可以被省去。如:

 

   ★ He grabbed his suitcase and gave the impression he was boarding the London plane.

   他拿起了手提箱,给人的印象是他要登上飞往伦敦的飞机了。(同位语从句he was boarding…省去了关联词that

 

   同位语从句偶尔用关联词whether引导。如:

 

   ★ He was tortured by the doubt whether or not he should venture to go south.

   他为他是否可以冒险去南方这种疑虑所折磨。

 

   疑问代词who, which, what和疑问副词where, when, why, how亦可引导同位语从句。如:

 

   ★ The question who should be responsible for this requires consideration.

   谁该为此负责,这个问题需要考虑。

 

   ★ We should settle the question where we should dispose of the waste immediately.

   我们需要马上解决在哪里处理那些垃圾的问题。

 

   ★ It is a question how it has been achieved.

   那是一个它如何被实现了的问题。

 

   同位语从句一般紧跟在其先行词之后,但有时也可以与先行词分开,置于句末。如:

 

   ★ The suggestion came from the public that the new policy should be implemented.

   实施新政策的建议是公众提出来的。

 

   在雅思阅读考试的文章中,这些名词性从句是和其他从句,如状语从句和定语从句等结合使用的,下面朗阁给考生们介绍一下在雅思阅读文章中这些名词性从句的使用。

 

   1.    The problem of how health-care resources should e allocated or apportioned, so that they are distributed in both the most just and most efficient way is not a new one.

   分析how health-care resources should e allocated or apportioned, so that they are distributed in both the most just and most efficient way”为句子中介词of的宾语。而so that they are distributed in both the most just and most efficient way”为介词宾语中so that引导的目的状语从句。

 

   2.    Looking back, it now seems quite incredible that in the national health systems that emerged in many countries in the years immediately after the 1939-45 World War, it was assumed without question that all the basic health needs of any community could be satisfied, at least in principle.

   分析that in the national health systems that emerged in many countries in the years immediately after the 1939-45 World War, it was assumed without question that all the basic health needs of any community could be satisfied, at least in principle”that引导的主语从句,it now seems”中的it为形式主语;that emerged in many countries in the years immediately after the 1939-45 World War”that引导的定语从句,其先行词为the national health systemsthat all the basic health needs of any community could be satisfied, at least in principle”that引导的主语从句,it为形式主语。

 

   3.    However, at exactly the same time as this new realization of the finite character of health-care resources was sinking in, an awareness of a contrary kind was developing in Western societies: that people have a basic right to health-care as a necessary condition of a proper human life.

   分析as this new realization of the finite character of health-care resources was sinking in”as引导的定语从句,其先行词为the same timethat people have a basic right to health-care as a necessary condition of a proper human life”that引导的同位语从句,其先行词为an awareness of a contrary kind.

 

   4.    Although the language of ‘right’ sometimes leads to confusion, by the late 1970s it was recognized in most societies that people have a right to health-care (though there has been considerable resistance in the United States to the idea that there is a formal right to health-care).

   分析Although the language of ‘right’ sometimes leads to confusion”

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