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2013.2.16雅思阅读考题回顾

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2013年2月16日雅思阅读考题回顾

考试日期:

2013216

Reading Passage 1

Title:

新手,熟练工和

Question types:

判断True/False/Not Given;

填空

文章内容回顾

篇是说一个“novice”怎么成为一个“expert”, 并且举例说明两者在看待及解决问题上的差别。还讲述对expertise掌握程度研究,从novicejourneyman然后蜕变到expert的过程。另外也提到了一些researcherstheorists, they are better in making predictions than experts.

旧文P1=V070908

英文原文阅读

Expertise research shows quite ambiguous results on the abilities of experts in judgment and decision making (JDM) classic models cannot account for. This problem becomes even more accentuated if different levels of expertise are considered. We argue that parallel constraint satisfaction models (PCS) might be a useful base to understand the processes underlying expert JDM and the hitherto existing, differentiated results from expertise research. It is outlined how expertise might influence model parameters and mental representations according to PCS. It is discussed how this differential impact of expertise on model parameters relates to empirical results showing quite different courses in the development of expertise; allowing, for example, to predict under which conditions intermediates might outperform experts. Methodological requirements for testing the proposed unifying theory under complex real-world conditions are discussed.

In support one theory, a study demonstrates that entrepreneurial experts frame decisions using an “effectual” logic (identify more potential markets, focus more on building the venture as a whole, pay less attention to predictive information, worry more about making do with resources on hand to invest only what they could afford to lose, and emphasize stitching together networks of partnerships); while novices use a “predictive frame” and tend to “go by the textbook.” We asked 27 expert entrepreneurs and 37 MBA students to think aloud continuously as they solved typical decision-making problems in creating a new venture. Transcriptions were analyzed using methods from cognitive science. Results showed that expert entrepreneurs framed problems in a dramatically different way than MBA students.

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