Reading Passage 1
The Use of Pesticide
杀虫剂的使用。某个地区针对cotton的化肥进化史。本文为针对一印度村中农业化肥的改革问题，从最初人们为经济利益大量种植棉花及无限制使用人工化肥，对当地生态产生了巨大的影响，到使用天然植物的种子来充当化肥的变革历程。种棉花用化肥和农药，先是有利刺激产量，然后发现坏处，最后有个neem seeds诞生了，又有效又环保，最后大家都不用化肥了，政府也搞了一个什么water project。
Farmers all over the world are suffering from a "pesticides treadmill". Pests are growing resistant to their sprays. So farmers have to spray ever more to have any effect, or buy new, more expensive chemicals. But at the same time world cotton prices have stagnated. So farmers face a serious squeeze on their profits, combined with growing threats to their health from the pesticides. Is there another way?
Maharashtra state is a centre of India''s cotton growing -- much of it on small farms such as those in Wardha district. Here many insects live in the cotton fields. The most destructive, the American bollworm, is spreading and growing resistant to pyrethroids and other cheap pesticides. To save their crops, farmers are spraying typically 10-12 times in a single growing season. One farmer, Vittal Rao Karamore, says he sprayed his fields 14 times.
Partly as a result, cotton farmers have become the biggest users of pesticides inIndia. Cotton occupies just 5% of the country''s fields, says NRI entomologist Derek Russell, but those fields use more than half of the country''s pesticides.
This repeated spraying is very expensive, forcing many farmers into debt. And it is counter-productive, encouraging resistance to the chemicals among the pests. So the next year the farmer must spray even more. Spraying often pollutes drinking water and neighbouring crops, and is a health hazard for farmers and their families. It is also hard labour. To spray a hectare of cotton, the farmer carries equipment weighing about 40 kilograms for 10 kilometres up and down the rows in the hot sun. No wonder women such as Bindutai Bhoge, a widow from thevillageofKaranji Bhoge, employ men to do their spraying.
So heavy spraying increases the vulnerability of farming communities to debt and poor health, while reducing the money the farmers have for other vital needs, such as educating their children. Farmers like Sulochana Balpande from Karanji Kaji village, who grows cotton partly to provide money to educate her two daughters.