朗阁首页 > 雅思机经 > 2019年10月26日雅思阅读考题回顾


来源:朗阁教育 2019-11-01 编辑:yawen 715人看过 10万人已领免费资料    雅思托福0元试学





Reading Passage 1


Copy your neighbor

Question types

Matching information  5


Multiple choice  2


Questions 1-5 Matching information

1. Criticism against flight height theory of butterfly. --E

2. Explained why Beccaloni carried out research in Ecuador.--B

3. Different mimicry ring flies at different height.--G

4. The method of catching butterfly by Beccaloni.--F

5. Not all Mimicry patterns are toxic information sent out from insects.--D


Questions 6-11 TRUE/ FALSE/ NOT GIVEN

6. All butterflies colours of wings reflect the sense of warning to other predators.-- FALSE

7. Insects may imitate butterflies wing pattern as well.--TRUE

8. Flying Altitude of butterfly is determined by their food.-- NOT GIVEN

9. Beccaloni agreed with flight height hypothesis and decided to reassure its validity.-- FALSE

10. Jatun Sacha has the richest diversity of breeds in the world.-- NOT GIVEN

11. Beccaloni has more detailed records on the location of butterfly collection than others.-- TRUE


Questions 12-13 Multiple choice

12. Which is correct about butterflies’ flight altitude?--D

A. Flight height theory already established.

B. Butterfly always flies at a certain height.

C. It is like the airplanes flying phenomenon.

D. Each butterfly has its own favorable height.


13. Which is correct about Beccaloni next investigation after flight height?--B

A. Some certain statistics have already been collected.

B. Try to find connections between larval height and adult ones.

C. Its very difficult to raise butterfly larval.

D. Different larval favors different kinds of trees.



There’s no animal that symbolises rainforest diversity quite as spectacularly as the tropical butterfly. Anyone lucky enough to see these creatures flitting between patches of sunlight cannot fail to be impressed by the variety of their patterns. But why do they display such colourful exuberance? Until recently, this was almost as pertinent a question as it had been when the 19th-century naturalists, armed only with butterfly nets and insatiable curiosity, battled through the rainforests. These early explorers soon realised that although some of the bright colours are there to attract a male, others are warning signals.


They send out a message to any predators: “Keep off, we're poisonous.” And because wearing certain patterns affords protection, other species copy them. Biologists use the term “mimicry rings” for these clusters of impostors and their evolutionary idol.



But here’s the conundrum. “Classical mimicry theory says that only a single ring should be found in any one area, explains George Beccaloni of the Natural History Museum, London The idea is that in each locality there should be just the one pattern that best protects its wearers. Predators would quickly learn to avoid it and eventually all mimetic species in a region should converge upon it. "The fact that this is patently not the case has been one of the major problems in mimicry research,” says Beccaloni. In pursuit of a solution to the mystery of mimetic exuberance, Beccaloni set off for one of the megacentres for butterfly diversity, the point where the western edge of the Amazon basin meets the foothills of the Andes in Ecuador. “It' s exceptionally rich, but comparatively well collected, so I pretty much knew what was there, says Beccaloni, The trick was to work out how all the butterflies were organized and how this related to mimicry.”



Working at the Jatun Sacha Biological Research Station on The banks of the Rio Napo, Beccaloni focused his attention on a group of butterflies called ithomiines. These distant relatives of Britain’s Camberwell Beauty are abundant throughout Central and South America and the Caribbean. They are famous for their bright colours, toxic bodies and complex mimetic relationships. “They can comprise up to 85 per cent of the individuals in a mimicry ring and their patterns are mimicked not just by butterflies, but by other insects as diverse as damselflies and true bugs” says Philip DeVries of the Milwaukee Public Museum’s Center for Biodiversity Studies.



Even though all ithomiines are poisonous, it is in their interests to evolve to look like one another because predators that learn to avoid one species will also avoid others that resemble it. This is known as Miillerian Mimicry. Mimicry rings may also contain insects that are not toxic, but gain protection by looking likes a model species that is: an adaptation called Batesian mimicry. So strong is an experienced predator’s avoidance response that even quite inept resemblance gives some protection. "Often there will be a whole series of species that mimic, with varying degrees of verisimilitude, a focal or model species," says John Turner from the University of Leeds. "The results of these deceptions are some of the most exquisite examples of evolution known to science." In addition to colour, many mimics copy behaviours and even the flight pattern of their model species.



But why are there so many different mimicry rings? One idea is that species flying at the same height in the forest canopy evolve to look like one another. “It had been suggested since the 1970s that mimicry complexes were stratified by flight height,” says DeVries. The idea is that wing colour patterns are camouflaged against the different patterns of light and shadow at each level in the canopy, providing a first line of defence against predators.” But the light patterns and wing patterns don’t match very well, he says. And observations show that the insects do not shift in height as the day progresses and the light patterns change. Worse still, according to DeVries, this theory doesn’t explain why the model species is flying at that particular height in the first place.



“When I first went out to Ecuador, I didn’t believe the flight height hypothesis and set out to test it.” says Beccaloni. “A few weeks with the collecting net convinced me otherwise. They really Hew that way.” What he didn’t accept, however, was the explanation about light patterns. “I thought, if this idea really is true, and I can work out why, it could help explain why there are so many different warning patterns in any one place. Then we might finally understand how they could evolve in such a complex way “The job was finally understand how they could evolve in such a complex way.” The job was complicated by the sheer diversity of species involved at Jatun Sacha. Not only were there ithomiine butterfly species divided among eight mimicry rings, there were also other insect species, including 34 day-flying moths and a damselfly, all in a 200-hectare study area. Like many entomologists before him, Beccaloni used a large bag-like net to capture his prey. This allowed him to sample the 2.5 metres immediately above the forest floor. Unlike many previous workers, he kept very precise notes on exactly where he caught his specimens.



The attention to detail paid off. Beccaloni found that the mimicry rings were living at two quite separate altitudes. “Their use of the forest was quite distinctive” he recalls. “For example, most members of the clear-winged mimicry ring would fly close to the forest floor, while the majority of the 12 species in the tiger-winged ring fly high up.” Each mimicry ring had its own characteristic flight height.



However, this being practice rather than theory, things were a bit fuzzy. “They’d spend the majority of their time flying at a certain height. But they’d also spend a smaller proportion of their time flying at other heights,” Beccaloni admits. Species weren’t slacked rigidly like passenger jets waiting to land, but they did appear to have a preferred airspace in the forest. So far, so good, but he still hadn’t explained what causes the various groups of ithomiines and their chromatic consorts to fly in formations at these particular heights.



Then Beccaloni had a bright idea. “I started looking at the distribution of ithomiine larval food plants within the canopy,” he says. “For each one I’d record the height to which the host plant grew and the height above the ground at which the eggs or larvae were found. Once I got them back to the field station’s lab, it was just a matter of keeping them alive until they pupated and then hatched into adults which I could identify.”





1. 找出题目中的关键词,最好先定位到原文中的一个段落。将题目中的关键词与原文各段落的小标题或每段话的第一句相对照。有些题目能先定位到原文中的一个段落,这必将大大加快解题时间,并提高准确率。但并不是每个题目都能先定位到原文中的一个段落的。

2. 从头到尾快速阅读该段落,根据题目中的其它关键词,在原文中找出与题目相关的一句或几句话。确定一个段落后,答案在该段落中的具体位置是未知的。所以,需要从头到尾快速阅读该段落,找出该段落中与题目相关的一句话或几句话,通常是一句话。

3. 仔细阅读这一句话或几句话,根据第二大步中的原则和规律,确定正确答案。

4. 要注意顺序性,即题目的顺序和原文的顺序基本一致。


Reading Passage 2


Corporate social responsibility-a new concept of "market"

Question types

Matching information  4

Multiple choices  9


Questions 1-4 Matching information

1 An action taken to Establishing social responsibility in conservation project--B

2 a description of the conventional way the ads applied to talk to its customers--F

3 A history of a humble origin and expansion--D

4 management practices arc intended to lined up the company's goal with participants' prosperity-- E


Questions 5-7 Multiple choices

5-7) What are true about the Ben & Jerry's company management? --C\D\F

A. There was little difference between the highest salary and the lowest

B. They were advertising their product with powerful internal marketing.

C. They offer the employee complimentary product

D. Employee were encouraged to give services back to the community

E. The products are designed for workers to barter for other goods and services

F. Offered a package of benefits for disable employees


Questions 8-10 Multiple choices


雅思阅读 考题回顾

考前还在转发锦鲤?这里有资深编辑押题预测! 加我!加我!免费获取资料


  • 适用人群
  • 词汇量1000
  • 词汇量1500
  • 词汇量2000以上
  • 词汇量6000以上
  • 开课时间
  • 热报中
  • 滚动开班
  • 即将开班
  • 热报中





沪ICP备 17003234 号 图书经营许可证:第A7651号 版权所有:上海朗阁教育科技股份有限公司 Copyright 2005 LONGRE EDUCATION GROUP All Rights Reserved