Reading Passage 1
TRUE/ FALSE/ NOT GIVEN 6题
Until 1689, ballet in Russia was nonexistent. The Tsarist control and isolationism in Russia allowed for little influence from the West. It wasn't until the rise of Peter the Great that Russian society opened up to the West. St. Petersburg was erected to embrace the West and compete against Moscow’s isolationism. Peter the Great created a new Russia which rivaled the society of the West with magnificent courts and palaces. His vision was to challenge the west. Classical ballet entered the realm of Russia not as entertainment, but as a “standard of physical comportment to be emulated and internalized” - an idealized way of behaving. The aim was not to entertain the masses of Russians, but to create a cultivated and new Russian people.
Empress Anna, (1730 – 1740) was devoted to ostentatious amusements (balls, fireworks, tableaux), and in the summer of 1734 ordered the appointment of Jean-Baptiste Landé as dancing master in the military academy she had founded in 1731 for sons of the nobility. In 1738, he became ballet master and head of the new ballet school, launching the advanced study of ballet in Russia, and winning the patronage of elite families.
France provided many leaders such as Charles Didelot in St Petersburg (1801-1831), Jules Perrot (1848-1859) and Arthur Saint-Léon (1859-69).
In the early 19th century, the theaters were opened up to anyone who could afford a ticket. A seating section called a rayok, or 'paradise gallery', consisted of simple wooden benches. This allowed non-wealthy people access to the ballet, because tickets in this section were inexpensive.
One author describes the imperial ballet as “unlike that of any other country in the world”. The most prestigious ballet troupes were those attached to the state-supported theatres. The directors of these companies were personally appointed by the tsar, and all the dancers were, in a sense, Imperial servants. In the theatre, the men in the audience always remained standing until the tsar entered his box and, out of respect, after the performance they remained in their places until he had departed. Curtain calls were arranged according to a strict pattern: first, the ballerina bowed to the tsar’s box, then to that of the theater director, and finally to the general public.
Questions1-6 TRUE/ FALSE/ NOT GIVEN
Questions 7-13 Completion
剑10 Test 1 Passage 1
Reading Passage 2
The Reconstruction of Community in Talbot Park, Auckland
Matching Headings 7题
Matching Features 3题
Summary Completion 3题
The Talbot Park in Auckland, New Zealand was once described as a state housing ghetto, rife with crimes, vandalism and other social problems. But today it has undergone an urban renewal makeover.
The buildings in Talbot Park are eye-catching now and quite different from other state-built ones. “There is no reason why public housing should look cheap in view,” says Design Group architect Neil. The bricks and wood-built houses and apartments are tidy.
Talbot Park is a triangle of government-owned land bounded by Apirana Ave, Pilkington Ed and Point England Rd. In the early 1960s it was developed for state housing build around a linear park that ran through the middle. Initially, there was a strong sense of a family-friendly community. Former residents recall how the Talbot Park reserve played a big part in their childhoods - a place where the kids in the block came together to play softball, cricket, leapfrog and bulrush. “It was all just good fun”, says George Thompson. “We had respect for our neighbors and addressed them by the title Mr. and Mrs. so and so,” she recalls.
Quite what went wrong with Talbot Park is not clear. The community began to change in the late 1970s as more immigrants such as Pacific Islanders and Europeans moved in. The new arrivals didn’t integrate with the community, a “them and us” mentality developed, and residents interacted with their neighbors less. What was clear was that the buildings were deteriorating and shabbier. The rate of crime was on the rise and the reserve-focus of fond childhoods memories-had become a wasteland and was considered unsafe. But it wasn’t until 2002 that Housing New Zealand decided the properties needed upgrading.
Some controversial views arose when the program started and actually, the program made the density of the people greater. As the building in the park included free-standing houses, semi-detached or low-level apartments, the state took the mix and match strategy which involved different architects and prevented the buildings from being the same. And the interiors such as the kitchen and bathroom were made comfortable and not over the budget. The walls in the community were canceled and showed the people with see-through openness.
The community is comprised of different races: Pacific islanders, Maoris, New Zealand Europeans. The tenants also include other races from Asia, Ukraine and Iran. The design of buildings should be accommodated to the ethic cultures.
People who lived in the park are in low socio-economic level. Of the 5000 households there, 55 percent are state houses, 28 percent privately owned (compared to about 65 percent nationally) and 17 percent are private rental. The area has a high concentration of an income in the $ 5000to $15000 and very few with an income over $70000. That’s in sharp contrast to the more affluent suburbs like Kohumarama and St. John’s that surround the area.
There’s no doubt that good urban design and good architecture play a significant part in the scheme. But probably more important is a new standard of social control. Housing New Zealand calls it “intensive tenancy management.” Others view it as social engineering. “It is a model that we are looking at going forward,” according to Housing New Zealand’s central Auckland regional manager Graham Bodman. “The focus is on frequent inspections, helping tenants to get to know each other. That includes some strict rules- no loud parties after 10 pm, no dogs, no cats in the apartment, no washing hung over balcony rails and a requirement to mow lawns and keep the property tidy. Housing New Zealand has also been active in organizing morning teas and street barbecues for resident to meet their neighbors. “It’s all based in the intensification,” says Community Renewal project manager Stuart Bracey. “We acknowledge if you are going to put more people living closer together you have to actually help them to live together because it creates tension-especially for people that aren’t used to it.”
Questions 14-20 Matching Headings
i. Some problems arose about the community
ii. where the residents have lived when the buildings were under makeover
iii. financial hardship of the residents in the park
iv. unexpected high standards of the design of the buildings
v. a makeup of various ethnic origins should be considered
vi. experiences of the a family living in the park nowadays
vii. how to coordinate and assist the tenants who lived in the community
viii. The need to raise money to fund the makeover
ix. close relationship among neighbors in the original site
x. the details of the style of the buildings in the park
14. Paragraph A -- x
15. Paragraph B -- ix
16.Paragraph C -- i
17. Paragraph D -- iv
18.Paragraph E -- iii
19. Paragraph F -- v
20. Paragraph G – vii
Questions 21-23 Matching Features
21. James Lundy -- D
22. Graham Bodman -- A
23. Stuart Bracey -- C
A. Tenant management involves supervision and regulation
B. Building the houses should be within minimal budget
C. Social activities are organized to help people close to each other
D. Buildings should be adaptive and responsive to racial cultures
E. Complains about the high standards of the building design
F. Opponents hold that regulations may cause resentment of the tenants
Questions 24-26 Summary Completion
The Mix and Match Strategy