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雅思阅读:缺乏睡眠的8大危害

来源:朗阁教育 2013-03-14 编辑:PMC_ivy 雅思托福0元试学

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缺乏睡眠的症状很明显:东倒西歪像喝醉了酒、注意力不集中、行动迟缓、并极度渴望小睡一会儿(或再来杯咖啡)。

  The immediate effects of skimping on sleep are obvious. You''re groggy, unfocused, sluggish and dying for a nap (or a second cup of coffee)。缺乏睡眠的症状很明显:东倒西歪像喝醉了酒、注意力不集中、行动迟缓、并极度渴望小睡一会儿(或再来杯咖啡)。

  Then there are the sneakier signs you''re overtired: You''re overly emotional, starving and clumsier than usual. Most of the time, a solid night''s sleep will solve all these problems。当然还有一些不那么明显的过劳症状。这时候会表现出来的症状有:过于情绪化、手脚不如平时麻利,且容易感到饥饿。通常而言,只要睡一个饱觉,这些问题都会迎刃而解。

  The average adult needs about seven to nine hours of sleep each night, according to the National Sleep Foundation, but most of us don''t even get that much. But getting too little sleep -- generally understood to mean six hours or less a night -- can be serious -- enough to change your genes。根据国家睡眠基金会的统计,一个正常成年人每天需要7-9小时的睡眠。但绝大部分人的睡眠时间都不足。但是,如果睡得太少——小于6小时的话,后果可能会很严重,甚至会导致基因突变哦。

  Of course, one night of short sleep won''t put you at serious risk, but one week can. After just seven nights of too little sleep, researchers observed more than 700 genetic changes that could play a role in consequences including heart problems and obesity, according to a recent study。当然了,偶尔一次熬夜并不会特别的后果,但假如连熬了一个礼拜的夜,那就有危险了。科学家们经过研究发现,如果连着七天都严重缺乏睡眠的话,你体内会有700多个基因发生改变,从而带来包括心脏病、肥胖等一系列问题。

  Increase Stroke Risk进步中风风险

  Even without the typical risk factors, like being overweight or having a family history, short sleep can up your risk for stroke, according to 2012 research. Adults who regularly slept fewer than six hours a night had four times the risk of stroke symptoms, HuffPost reported。据2012年的研究显示,缺乏睡眠会显著进步中风几率,即使你并不具有典型危险因子如超重、家族史等等。《赫芬顿邮报》之前就报道过,经常性睡眠少于6小时的成年人的中风概率将比普通人高出4倍。

  Lead To Obesity导致肥胖

  Too little sleep can spur some less-than-ideal food choices, including serving yourself larger portions, and a hankering for junk food, thanks to some complicated hormonal changes that occur when you don''t get sufficient shuteye。缺乏睡眠会使人的饮食方式变得更不健康,包括吃得更多、更爱吃垃圾食品,因为睡眠不足会导致内分泌失调,从而引起这一系列症状。

  It seems that six hours of sleep or less bumps up production of the hunger hormone ghrelin and limits leptin, which helps you balance your food intake, according to a 2012 review of 18 studies of sleep and appetite。一项2012年进行的对18个睡眠与胃口的关系调查显示,当睡眠时间不足6小时时,胃饿素会大量分泌,并抑制瘦素的分泌,而瘦素是用来帮助人平衡饮食摄入量的。

  Up Diabetes Risk进步患糖尿病几率

  A pair of small studies from 2012 examined the link between poor sleep and insulin resistance, a telltale risk factor for diabetes. 来自2012年度的一系列小型研究显示,睡眠缺乏与胰岛素抵抗之间有一定联系,而后者是糖尿病的显著迹象之一。

  One found that among healthy teenagers, the shortest sleepers had the highest insulin resistance, meaning the body is not using insulin effectively, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases。据来自国家糖尿病、消化系统和肾病学会其中的一项研究显示,以健康年轻人为样本,睡眠较少的那群观察对象的胰岛素抵抗值也是*的,这说明他们的身体未能高效应用胰岛素。

  The second study examined fat cells, in particular, and found that cutting back on sleep increased insulin resistance in these cells, even when diet and calorie intake were restricted, Health.com reported。而根据健康网的报道,另一项研究专门探查了脂肪细胞的变化,发现睡眠缺乏可以导致脂肪细胞的胰岛素抵抗,且即使节食+控制卡路里摄入也不能改变这一点。

  Fuel Memory Loss加速记忆丧失

  You probably know that on the days when you are most tired, you''re forgetful and unfocused -- but sleep deprivation can lead to permanent cognitive issues. The less we sleep, the less we benefit from the memory-storing properties of sleep。你可能已经感觉到:在特别累的时候,自己总是很健忘、且注意力不集中。但睡眠缺乏能直接带来*性的认知问题。我们睡得越少,我们从睡眠中受益就越少,睡眠则能够帮助记忆恢复。

  But additionally, a lack of sleep can cause "brain deterioration," according to a 2013 study, which may at least in part explain memory loss in seniors。此外,据一项2013年度的研究显示,睡得太少还会导致“大脑退化”,这个机制至少解释了一些老年人中存在记忆力下降的原因。

  Damage Bones对骨骼造成危害

  At least in rats, long-term sleep deprivation seems to contribute to osteoporosis, according to a 2012 study. Reserachers found changes to bone mineral density and bone marrow in the rodents when they were deprived of shuteye over a period of 72 days。一项2012年度的结果表明,从老鼠实验中能得出,长期睡眠剥夺会导致骨质疏松。研究者们使大鼠们经历长达72天的睡眠剥夺,然后发现它们的骨密度和骨髓均发生了改变。

  Increase Cancer Risk进步患癌几率

  A small (but growing) body of research suggests that short and poor sleep can up risk for certain types of cancer. A 2010 study found that among 1,240 people screened for colorectal cancer, the 338 who were diagnosed were more likely to average fewer than six hours of sleep a night。目前已有少量的研究机构提出假设,即睡得少、睡眠质量低都会进步罹患某种癌症的几率;有关这方面的研究正在日益壮大。一项2010年的研究表示,在1240位接受结直肠癌检查的人群中,338位确诊患癌的人士的平均睡眠时间少于6小时。

  Even after controlling for more traditional risk factors, polyps were more common in people who slept less, according to the study。即使是在排除了一些常见危险因素以后,得出的结论依然是:睡得较少的人,罹患结直肠息肉的几率更高。

  Getting just six hours of sleep a night has also been linked to an increase of recurrence in breast cancer patients. The study''s author has pointed to more and better sleep as a possible pathway of reducing risk and recurrence。每天只睡6小时同时也易导致乳腺癌复发。该研究项目的负责人认为,高质量的足够睡眠是一种可能有助于降低患癌几率和复发几率的方式。

  Hurt Your Heart伤害你的心脏

  The stress and strain of too little sleep can cause the body to produce more of the chemicals and hormones that can lead to heart disease, according to 2011 research. 据一项2011年的研究显示,压力、精神紧张和缺少睡眠会使机体产生更多容易导致心脏疾病的化合物及激素。

  The study found that people who slept for six hours or less each night and have problems staying asleep had a 48 percent higher risk of developing or dying from heart disease。该研究发现,睡眠少于6小时的人,以及睡眠质量较差的人比一般人患心脏疾病/死于心脏疾病的概率高48%。

  Kill You夺去你的生命

  It''s not just heart problems that can lead to sleep-deprivation-related death. In fact, short sleepers seem to die younger of any cause than people who sleep about 6.5 to 7.5 hours a night, TIME reported。因睡眠缺乏而导致死亡的可不仅仅是心脏病哦。事实上,《时代周刊》曾报道过,与每天睡6.5-7.5个小时的人相比,短睡眠者因多种疾病可能而导致的死亡年龄更早。

  A 2010 study examined the impact of short sleep on mortality and found that men who slept for less than six hours of sleep a night were four times more likely to die over a 14-year period. The study''s authors called this link "a risk that has been underestimated."一项2010年的研究检视了短眠者的死亡率,发现在14年内,每日睡眠少于6小时的人群的死亡率是普通人的4倍。该项目的研究者们把睡眠缺乏称为“一个被低估的风险”。

 


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