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综合写作备考策略二

来源:朗阁教育 2019-03-14 编辑:wang 雅思托福0元试学

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托福写作的考试时间总共为50分钟,考试内容分为综合写作及独立写作,综合写作考查的技能主要有记笔记,总结和改写的技能;考试形式先是3分钟的阅读文章,字数约为230-300词,3分钟过后界面自动跳到[ 绿色表示重点内容,粉红色表示阅读及听力内容的改写,灰色表示改写的方法。]2分钟的听力界面,注意听力只能听一遍,字数约为230-300词;考试内容主要为生物类,以动植物类居多,还包括天文类,环境类等。本文主要以TPO14及47的综合写作为载体来分析总结综合写作在备考时的写作难点及重点内容,以期帮助学生在短时间内掌

3. TPO14听力部分

听力结构是四段式,*段是听力的主旨及与阅读的关系或者是阅读主旨的改写及其与听力的关系;第二段、第三段、第四段分别是反驳阅读内容的三个理由及其细节。首先,第二段、第三段及第四段的听力要点主要包括以下几个:重复,因果,问答,举例,对比,否定,强调,重读,强调,*/比较级/*性,特殊停顿,放慢语速。以下是听力文本解析:

Salvage logging may appear to be an effective way of helping forests recover after a destructive fire or storm, but (转折)it can actually result in serious longer-term environmental damage. Its economic benefits are also questionable.(关系)

听力*段表明了阅读与听力的关系及听力的主旨内容。

改写:Salvage logging is detrimental to both the woods and the economy.

First, cleaning up a forest after a fire or storm does not necessarily create the right conditions for tree growth. (首句+重复)In fact, (强调)the natural process of wood decomposition enriches the soil and makes it more suitable for future generations of tree. The rapid removal of dead trees can result in soil that lacks the nutrients necessary for growth.(尾句)

第二段是反对阅读的内容并*出自己的理由,在该段落中需要特别注意salvage logging 的同义词,即salvage logging=cleaning up a forest after a fire or storm/the rapid removal of dead trees。

改写:Salvage logging is bad for the forest because new trees can’t survive in the soil lacking nutrients decomposed by dead trees removed by salvage logging.

 

Second, it's true that rotting wood can increase insect populations, but is this really bad for the forest?( 问句) In fact, spruce bark beetles have lived in Alaskan forest for nearly a hundred years without causing major damage. (例子+因果)And of course dead trees do not (否定)provide habitats only for harmful insects. They are also (并列)used by birds and other insects that are important contributors  to the long-term health of forests. In the long run, therefore,(因果) salvage logging may end up-doing more harm to forests than harmful insects do.

在该段落中,首先应该注意*句,该句前面部分是阅读的重点内容,转折后表明了听力与阅读的关系及听力*出的理由。

改写:salvage logging is harmful to forests because spruce bark beetles living in Alaskan forest for hundreds of years don’t cause any major damage. In addition, salvage logging destroys the habitats where birds and other insects necessary for long-term healthy forest live.

And third, the economic benefits of salvage logging are small and do not last very long, in severely damaged forests, much of the lumber(重复) can be recovered only by using helicopters and other vehicles that are expensive to use and maintain. Furthermore,(并列)jobs created by salvage logging are only temporary and are often filled by outsiders with more experience or training than local residents have.

第四段听力*出两点来对应反对阅读的两个点。

改写:Salvage logging does not provide long-term economic benefits because helicopters and other vehicles  are expensive to use and maintain in severely devastated forests and temporary jobs created by salvage logging are replaced with experienced and trained outsiders.

3.TPO47练习听力部分

Recent research has revealed the pterosaurs may in fact have been capable of powered flight.

改写:pterosaurs are capable of powered flight.

First, the issue of pterosaur metabolism. Some recently discovered pterosaur fossils indicate that pterosaurs had a dense, hair-like covering, somewhat similar to fur. Hair or fur covering is typical of warm-blooded animals because those animals need to maintain a high body temperature when external conditions are cold. So if the metabolism of pterosaurs was more like that of warm-blooded animals and so faster than the reading suggests, then it would have supplied them with the energy needed for powered flight.

改写:warm-blooded pterosaurs produce adequate energy for powered flight because they have a dense, hair-like covering, which is a symbol of warm-blooded animals, to maintain a high body temperatures in the cold external conditions.

Second, the idea that large pterosaurs couldn't use powered flight because they were too heavy. We now know that pterosaurs had anatomical features that made them unusually light for their size. For example, the bones of pterosaurs were hollow instead of solid. Hollow, light-weight bones would have kept the pterosaurs weight low despite their large body frames. The pterosaurs' weight was probably low enough to allow them to keep themselves airborne by flapping their wings.

改写:Pterosaurs were not too heavy to flap their wings because the hollow, light-weight bones could help them stay airborne.

Third, takeoff would indeed be a problem for pterosaurs if they took off the way birds do. But there are important differences between birds and pterosaurs. Birds only use their hind limbs, their legs, for walking on the ground. So they only have two limbs to push off from when they launch. But pterosaurs walked on all four limbs while on the ground. There are modern flying animals that walk on all four limbs. Bats, for example. And they use all four limbs to push off the ground, not just the back ones. Studies indicate that even the largest pterosaurs would have had no trouble using all four limbs to run fast enough or jump high enough to launch themselves into the air.

改写:Unlike birds using to hind limbs to take off from the ground, pterosaurs use all four limbs to take off as modern flying animals such as bats do.

三、写作部分

1. TPO 14的范文:

The reading contends that salvage logging benefits not only the destroyed forest but also economy. However, the lecture opposes what the reading says. He believes that salvage logging is detrimental to both the woods and the economy.

The first point stated in the reading is that salvage logging creates suitable conditions for new tree growth because it provides space to new trees. However, the lecture opposes what the reading says. He holds that salvage logging is bad for the forest because new trees can’t survive in the soil lacking nutrients decomposed by dead trees removed by salvage logging.

Contrary to the second point in the reading is that salvage logging contributes to the healthy forest due to the reduction of insect infestation such as the spruce bark beetle, the lecture says that salvage logging is harmful to forests because spruce bark beetles living in Alaskan forest for hundreds of years don’t cause any major damage. In addition, salvage logging destroys the habitats where birds and other insects necessary for long-term healthy forest live.

The last one made in the reading is that salvage logging has economic benefits because it provides industrial wood and jobs for the locals. However, the professor contradicts what the reading states. He proposes that salvage logging does not provide long-term economic benefits because helicopters and other vehicles are expensive to use and maintain in severely devastated forests and temporary jobs created by salvage logging are replaced with experienced and trained outsiders.

2.TPO47范文:

The reading holds that pterosaurs were incapable of powered flight. However, the lecture opposes what the reading says. He believes that pterosaurs are capable of powered flight.

The first point stated in the reading is that the cold-blooded pterosaurs with slow metabolism were unable to produce sufficient energy to fly, which means that warm-blooded animals could generate ample energy needed by powered flight to fly. However, the lecture opposes what the reading says. He holds that

warm-blooded pterosaurs produce adequate energy for powered flight because they have a dense, hair-like covering, which is a symbol of warm-blooded animals, to maintain a high body temperatures in the cold external conditions.

Opposite to the point in the reading that the heavy and large pterosaurs were unable to stay aloft for a long time by flapping their wings fast, the lecture proposes that pterosaurs were not too heavy to flap their wings because the hollow, light-weight bones could help them stay airborne.

The third point, made in the reading, is that pterosaurs were unable to use small and weak back legs to take off from the ground/launch themselves into the air as the birds do. Unlike birds using to hind limbs to take off from the ground, pterosaurs use all four limbs to take off as modern flying animals such as bats do. Thus, the lecture is opposite to what the reading says.

四、总结

在阅读和听力中需要注意以下几个逻辑关系:

1. 整体个体/部分 2.类比时间

希望以上的分析内容能给学生带来帮助, 建议在准备考试的过程中加强听力练习及*写作,以期取得理想目标。


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