TPO27 task4 reading part
Some insect species live in large groups, or “swarms.” Such swarms typically include several thousand individual insects. Living in swarms allows these insects to accomplish complex tasks together through complex behaviors. The behavior of the insects as a group demonstrates a greater level of complexity than the behavior of individual group members. This complex group behavior is called swarm intelligence. With swam intelligence, each insect performs a simple instinctual behavior that is repeated by other individuals that results in a complex behavior. Insect swarms are able to accomplish tasks that individual insects would not be able to achieve.
分析：在涉及生物类别的听力时，基本上听力中的内容会围绕生物的某一种特性展开，而这个特性一般会涉及到生物的一些physical features，所以在听力做笔记的时候一定要注意到是生物的哪个身体部分或者器官，然后再根据身体特性展开说明涉及到的此部分的功能或者好处。首先根据标题概念定位到第四句话，通过指代词this可以往前找一句，也就是“The behavior of the insects as a group demonstrates a greater level of complexity than the behavior of individual group members”，然后针对这一篇阅读，我们可以明确需要记录昆虫的某种集体行为和相关的身体部分，另外这个行为会展现一定复杂度，所以我们还需要记录听力中涉及到这种群体行为的具体细节以及复杂展现的地方。
TPO39 task4 reading part
Customers are often willing to pay higher prices for high-quality products, however, without specialized knowledge, it can be difficult to evaluate whether certain items are highly quality. When customers are unsure whether an item is high quality, ad worth the prize, they are less likely to purchase it. This problem can be solved through signaling. The seller of a product finds a way to signal, or demonstrate, to the buyer that the product is high quality. One common signaling strategy is to have a person or company that is not involved in the sale provides an objective, unbiased judgment about the quality of a product.
分析：business方面的内容，考生需要注意的是听力内容一般围绕产品和公司展开，所以在记录听力内容的时候这两块一定是记录的重点。根据标题定位到第三句，发现这一句并有说明标题的定义，然后往后看两句可以找到了这个概念——“The seller of a product finds a way to signal, or demonstrate, to the buyer that the product is high quality. One common signaling strategy is to have a person or company that is not involved in the sale provides an objective, unbiased about the quality of a product.”另外，这两句涉及的对象除了seller, buyer还有另一个person or company或者可以说第三方的身份，此外考生还需要注意到听力中关于第三方所*供的客观没有偏见的评价judgment对于产品的质量内容到底是什么。
TPO52 task4 reading part
According to some sociologists, as we go about our lives, we try to control or manage the impression that we make on others in social situations. When we do this, we are practicing what sociologists call impression management. Even in everyday, ordinary interactions, we make special preparations—sometimes unconsciously—to convey certain Information about ourselves that influences how others perceive us. These preparations often involve our personal appearance—how we look during the social interaction— as well as the social setting, which is the place where the social interaction occurs.
分析：社会学跟心理学有点相似，涉及的对象也是人，但是区别在于心理学围绕个人的一些特性展开，而社会学顾名思义一般围绕人与人之间的社会关系展开。针对这篇文章，我们先根据标题直接定位到第二句话，但是这句话并没有说明这个概念的定义，通过代词this我们可以往前找*句话“According to some sociologists, as we go about our lives, we try to control or manage the impression that we make on others in social situations“，理解后我们可以发现这句话的确实涉及两个对象也就是we和others, 另外我们还要注意impression的具体内容和social situation所涉及的地点。