A lot of plants and animals live near the surface of the ocean, and that means there’s a lot of food near the surface, because there are lots of plants and animals to eat. But if you go down to the deepest parts of the ocean, it’s cold and dark, and there’s not a lot of living down there, so food is very scarce. So organisms that live down at these great depths have developed special adaptations to help them survive in this environment where food is so hard to find.
For example,many deep-sea organisms have body features that enable them to eat prey that are larger than themselves. A good example, um, there’s a species of eel that has an enormous mouth and a large stomach that’s capable of expanding. And these unusual features allow this eel to eat prey larger than itself. That’s a big advantage because if the eel eats something big, that’s a lot of food, a lot of nutrition. So the eel can go for quite a while before it has to find food again.
Another helpful adaptationin some deep-sea organisms is the ability to generate light. And some organisms use that light to help them capture food. For example, there’s a kind of fish called the angler fish. And on its head, this fish has a little structure that produces light that glows in the dark. This little structure, this little light, is positioned close to the fish’s mouth. Other fish are attracted to this light, they think it’s something small they can eat, so they swim straight toward it. And that brings them close enough for the angler fish to capture them and eat them.
很明显，本段材料遵循典型的教授讲课套路，即一个主旨“organisms that live down at these great depths have developed special adaptations to help them survive”,两个points分别是：“many deep-sea organisms have body features that enable them to eat prey that are larger than themselves”和“the ability to generate light”, 而且非常明显的是两个要点分别用了连接词“For example”和“Another helpful adaptation”来帮助考生定位。再继续往下听，我们又听到了表示举例的连接词“A good example”和“For example”, 这就更明确地告诉我们两个例子要出现了，*醒考生们仔细听、注意记录。所以这样的听力材料是非常好定位，能够让考生清晰地get到重点的。
Now let’s talk about a particular cultural process: diffusion. Since the beginning of human history, diverse cultures have taken advantage of one another’s innovations when they’ve come into contact. Diffusion is the process whereby something cultural…like a custom, a type of food or an invention is spread from one group to another, or from one society to another. One group adopts a cultural item, or, more selectively, just part of a cultural item of another group, you see?
Now diffusion can occur through a variety of ways: military conquest or tourism or even something like the influence of satellite TV shows around the world. For example, take something like reading a modern newspaper here in the US. Have you ever thought about where the letters, the characters on the page you’re reading, where they came from? They were borrowed from another culture many centuries ago. Then, the printing of the words, well, that process was invented in Germany, and finally, the paper itself, the paper was invented in China. These innovations from all over the world were shared across cultures over time, and so today we have newspapers in the US. So the process of diffusion might take place over long distances and over long periods of time.
Now I’m not saying that diffusion happens easily, as I mentioned, sometimes it’s selective. For instance, many people in the US have accepted the practice of acupuncture. The Chinese practice of using needles to cure disease or relieve pain. So, lots of people in the US have realized that acupuncture is effective, but few of them fully understand or have committed themselves to the philosophy behind acupuncture. Cultures tend to resist ideas that seem to foreign, too different from their own beliefs and values. But the ideas which aren’t perceived as too different are often incorporated, absorbed, diffused into their culture, so the practice of acupuncture has been absorbed into US culture, but not the philosophies of Chinese medicine.
何为信号词？并不是单纯的表示列举和增补关系的连接词，比如first, second, another, also等。而是表示教授将要讲出重点的一些语助词或标记语，比如OK, Now, Well等。这些词被称为Discourse Marker（语篇标语），让我们先来看看关于它的定义吧---A discourse marker is something that either connects a sentence to what comes before or after, or indicates a speaker's attitude to what he is saying. Now discourse markers are assigned functions in different levels of analysis: topic changes, reformulations, discourse planning, stressing,hedging, or backchanneling. 大家看到，语篇标语的功能是多样的，其中两条—topic changes（话题转换）和stressing（强调）是听力材料中*频繁出现的。也就是说，当我们听到材料中有OK, Now, Well, Then, All right, You know, I mean, Actually, Basically, So等，就需要*高警惕，因为讲课重点要出现了。