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做托福阅读都有哪些技巧?

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托福阅读的考试除了要求学生有一定的词汇量以及夯实的语法基础以外,面对题型非常丰富的考试,掌握一定的阅读技巧是非常有必要的。

托福阅读的考试除了要求学生有一定的词汇量以及夯实的语法基础以外,面对题型非常丰富的考试,掌握一定的阅读技巧是非常有必要的。

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技巧一: 熟用定位法

托福阅读的考试一个小时完成三篇,平均每篇20分钟。20分钟要包括完成阅读700字左右的文章,以及12-14到题目,包括看题目以及四个选项。时间是非常紧张的。如果毫无目的的先看文章,在看题目,在回头找答案是非常耗时的。面对托福的阅读的主流题型-事实信息题(3-5个/篇)来说,用题目里的关键字定位到文章找到关键句,然后进行同义转换,既省时又能提升正确率。那么关键词怎么找?一般来说,就是题目的里的名词进行有效定位。定位的方法有以下几类:

1)专有名词,比如人名或地名

2)数字定位(不管是题目里还是答案出现数字,都用数字定位)Paragraph 5 :The coastal hypothesis has gained increasing support in recent years because the remains of large land animals, such as caribou and brown bears, have been found in southeastern Alaska dating between 10,000 and 12,500 years ago. This is the time period in which most scientists formerly believed the area to be inhospitable for humans. It has been suggested that if the environment were capable of supporting breeding populations of bears, there would have been enough food resources to support humans. Fladmark and other believe that the first human colonization of America occurred by boat along the Northwest Coast during the very late Ice Age, possibly as early as 14,000 years ago. The most recent geologic evidence indicates that it may have been possible for people to colonize ice-free regions along the continental shelf that were still exposed by the lower sea level between13,000 and 14,000 years ago.

题目:According to paragraph 5,the most recent geologic research provides support for a first colonization of America dating as far as back as A)16000 years ago

B)14000 years ago

C)12500 years ago

D)10000years ago

题目解析:这道题目是答案里出现数字,通过答案的数字直接定位到文章,A答案16000,文章里没有,暂时先放一下,14000在文章出现的地方有两个。关键句在文章里已用红色标出。First human colonization应该可以追溯到14000年之前。所以应该是B。

机考的时候,对于密密麻麻的文字来说,出现数字的时候一定是比较醒目比较容易找到的。

3)题目里的关键词会原文名词的同义替换

原文technical problems与题目里的 technological?inadequacies?想对应


技巧二:善抓逻辑词

逻辑词的考点在托福阅读的多种题型中都有反应

1)事实信息题中以why 开头的题目,考的就是因果逻辑关系。

段落里出现“therefore, due to,accordingly,as a result,hence,as“的时候就代表前后是因果的逻辑关系。

2)句子简化题

此题型考察的是句子内部的逻辑关系,可以通过句子中的逻辑词直接锁定答案。

以TPO China Pottery这篇为例

The tradition of religious sculpture extends over most historical periods but is less clearly delineated than that of stone wares or porcelains, for it embraces the old custom of earthenware burial ceramics with later religious images and architectural ornament.

A.While?stonewares?and?porcelains?are?found?throughout?most?historical?

periods,?religious sculpture?is?limited?to?the?ancient?period.

B.Religious?sculpture?was?created?in?most?periods,?but?its?history?is?less?

clear?than?that?of stone wares?or porcelains?because?some old?forms?

continued?to?be?used?even?when?new?ones?were?developedC.While?stonewares?and?porcelains?changed?throughout?history,?religious?

sculpture?remained uniform?in?form?and?use.

D.The?historical?development?of?religious?sculpture?is?relatively?unclear?

because?religious sculptures?sometimes?resemble?earthenware?architectural?ornaments.

这句话里面有明显的两个逻辑词“but”和for”。已经非常清楚了表明了这个句子两个重要的点,for 应该理解为因为。整句话应该理解为:宗教雕塑的传统贯穿了中国历史的大部分时期,但是它们不像粗陶器或者瓷器那样在历史中描述的那么清楚,因为他包含了陪葬陶瓷的旧工艺,又用到了后来的宗教雕塑和建筑装饰。那么B答案也有非明显的相对应的逻辑词but 和because,直接锁定B答案。然后在看下句子的表达的意思是完全正确的。

3) 句子插入题

此题型考察的是句子与句子之间的内部逻辑关系

以真题“Origins of the Megaliths”为例

Renfrew has studied two circumscribed areas, the Scottish islands of Arran and Rousay, to examine this hypothesis more closely. ■He found that a division of the arable land into territories, each containing one megalith, results in units that correspond in size to the individual farming communities of recent times in the same area. ■Each unit supported between 10 and 50 people. ■The labor needed to put up a megalith would probably be beyond the capabilities of a community this size. ■But Renfrew argues that the cooperation of other communities could be secured by some form of recognized social incentive perhaps a period of feasting at which communal building was one of several activities.

插入的句子:So it might seem that megaliths could not have been used by an individual community to mark its land.

So 表示结果,结果是这些megaliths 有可能不是一个community在用。那么前面应该会讲导致此观点的原因。D前面“the labor needed to put up a megalith would probably be beyond the capabilities of a community this size”. 修建需要的人手可能超过了一个社区的尺寸(暗示无法完成)。D之后转折讲通过feasting方式解决。


技巧三: 缕清段落结构跟文章结构

修辞目的题的题型简单来说就是考察学生对段落结构的把握。题型会问作者提到的一个example或者文章中做的实验的目的是什么。Example 跟 experiment 的details不重要。最关键要找论点。把握段落结构就能把握住题型。

小结题也就是所有文章的最后一个题型6选3 的题型,所选的答案是要能反应段落主旨的。

一般来说例子,具体的details都不能去选择,因为不能反应段落主旨。答案一定是能反应段落主旨的。此题型考察的是学生能否把握住文章结构。比如现象解释说明文,一般文章开头提出现象以后,后面几个段落都是在解释为什么会出现此现象的。


技巧四:否定事实信息题题型技巧

否定事实信息题就要注意段落里连续出现并列的地方。答案是选择表达错误的那个,可能是原文not mention的信息或者是跟原文信息表达不符的。那么也就说明其他三个选项在原文都有对应的地方,可以通过排除法来选出答案技巧五: 词汇题题型技巧

词汇题是除事实信息题以外的另一大主流题型,该题型的特色是:题量大,难度低。积累词汇量可以提升学生此题型的正确率,又非常节省时间。那么在考试的过程中遇见生词或者自己遗忘了单词,还有什么方法可以提升做词汇题的正确率呢?

1)  词根词缀法

homogeneous,这个词可以拆分三部分homo-gene-ous,home是表示同类的前缀,gene:基因,ous是形容词常见的后缀,连起来是同一类基因的,有同类组成的。

2)  通过词性的褒贬色彩

TPO 1-2-1. The word “championed” in the passage is closest in meaning to A.changed 

B.debated

C.created

D.supported

champion这个词名词的时候是冠军的意思,这里加了ed 很明显是动词用,属于褒义词,那么选项里只有D这个词还是属于褒义词,A中性词,B,贬义词,C中性词

3)  利用句子的逻辑关系去推测单词的意义。

4)  切记不要直接带入,有的时候带入的那个单词意思也很通畅,但是题目的词汇本身是没有单词的意思。词汇题的答案一定要基于单词本身!

A flood of ice would then surge into the Southern Sea. With the continued rise in sea level, more ice would plunge into the ocean, causing sea levels to rise even higher, which in turn would release more ice and set in motion a vicious cycle.

The word "plunge" is closest in meaning to which of following?

(A) drop

(B) extend

(C) melt

(D) drift

这个词汇题很多学生会选择melt,觉得这个冰融化到海洋里,引起海水位的上升。看上去很说的通。但是plunge这个词本身没有融化的意思,而是跌落,所以只能选择A。


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