例题1 (OG: Desert Formation)：
The extreme seriousness of desertification results from the vast areas of land and the tremendous numbers of people affected, as well as from the great difficulty of reversing or even slowing the process.
10. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. Desertification is a significant problem because it is so hard to reverse and affects large areas of land and great numbers of people.
B. Slowing down the process of desertification is difficult because of population growth that has spread over large areas of land.
C. The spread of deserts is considered a very serious problem that can be solved only if large numbers of people in various countries are involved in the effort.
D. Desertification is extremely hard to reverse unless the population is reduced in the vast areas affected.
1. 观察题干，发现表示隐形因果的短语result from
3. 分析原句：原句中"因"：1). 大量受到影响的土地vast areas of land; 2). 大量受到影响的人口tremendous numbers of people; 3). 很难去减慢或者颠覆沙漠化过程reverse or slow the process; 原句中"果"：沙漠化是一个严重serious的问题；分析A选项："因"：1). reverse process; 2). affect large areas of land; 3). affect great numbers of people; "果"：沙漠化是一个significant的问题
例题2 (TPO 17: Animal Signals in the Rain Forest)：
In the green-to yellow lighting conditions of the lowest levels of the forest, yellow and green would be the brightest colors, but when an animal is signaling, these colors would not be very visible if the animal was sitting in an area with a yellowish or greenish background.
7. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. When an animal is signaling in an area with green-to yellow lighting condition, its signal will not be visible if the background is brightly lit.
B. In the lowest levels of the forest, an animal's signals are not easily seen unless there is a yellowish or greenish background.
C. In the green-to-yellow lighting conditions at the lowest levels of the forest, only signals that are themselves green or yellow will be bright enough to be seen in most areas.
D. Although green and yellow would be the brightest colors near the forest floor, these colors would make poor signals whenever the forest background was also in the green-to-yellow range.
1. 分析题干，发现表转折的逻辑关系词but; 前半句"yellow and green会是较亮的颜色在低层森林中"；后半句"但是如果动物所处的background是yellow or greenish, 那么动物发出该种颜色的信号将不明显"
2. 分析选项：只有D选项含有表让步转折的逻辑词although, 进而分析句意：前半句："虽然green and yellow在森林底层颜色较亮"；后半句："在环境也是green to yellow的情况下，这些颜色将是poor signals"
3. 原句与选项在句子的结构上符合：转折结构；在语义上符合：lowest level of the forest = forest floor, Not very visible = poor signals
例题3 (TPO 17: Animal Signals in the Rain Forest)：
In the second case, pollinators (insects, birds) obtain food from the flowering plant, and the plant has its pollen distributed and seeds dispersed much more efficiently than they would be if they were carried by the wind only.
9. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. The relationship between flowering plants and pollinators provides pollinators with food and flowers with efficient reproduction.
B. In some cases birds obtain food from the seeds that are dispersed in the wind.
C. The wind not only helps the flowers distribute their seeds but enables birds to find more food.
D. Animals and insects are more effective in distributing pollen and seeds than the wind.
1. 分析原句，原句主要讲pollinator (insects & birds); plant; wind这三者之间的关系：具体来看是在比较对于plant来说，pollinator (insects & birds)要比wind more efficiently地帮助其distribute pollen and disperse seeds, 属于典型的比较关系
2. 分析选项，首先只有D选项含有比较关系，具体来看：animals & insects要比wind more effectively地去distribute pollen and seeds
例题1 (OG: Desert Formation)：
These regions are especially likely to have periods of severe dryness, so that crop failures are common. Since the raising of most crops necessitates the prior removal of the natural vegetation, crop failures leave extensive tracts of land devoid of a plant cover and susceptible to wind and water erosion.
6. According to paragraph 6, which of the following is often associated with raising crops?
A. Lack of proper irrigation techniques
B. Failure to plant crops suited to the particular area
C. Removal of the original vegetation
D. Excessive use of dried animal waste
1. 读题干，找出定位词raising crops
3. 分析定位句："原因状语从句 + 主句"，浏览选项，只有C选项与原句的前半部分意思一致，同义转换部分：natural vegetation = original vegetation
例题2 (TPO 14: Pastoralism in Ancient Inner Eurasia)：
Paragraph 4: Nomadism also subjects pastoralist communities to strict r