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托福阅读的修辞目的题

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修辞目的题已经做为托福必考题型,修辞目的题每篇文章考0-2题。小编分析认为,它主要考查考生们理解作者为什么在文章中某个特别位置或者以某种特殊的方式陈述一个特别的信息。托福阅读的修辞目的题怎么攻克呢?


托福阅读的修辞目的题


1)有时要求学生确定一个段落与另一个段落之间的联系

2)有时考查作者提到某一条特别信息的原因(句子之间的联系

注意:此类题目不考查整篇文章的结构,只考查句子或段落之间的逻辑关系。


问题形式

The author discusses X in paragraph 2 in order to…

Why does the author mention X?

The author uses X as an example of…


答题技巧

修辞目的题一般可分为以下几类:

一、例子题

例子题一般占修辞目的题出题机会的70%, 题干中出现的X本身是段落中出现的一个例子,这类题是送分题,因为要么是先举例子后总结/概述(理论),要么是先概述(理论)后举例子所以答案多半是绕过例子看概述,而概述的改写就是本题答案的所在,也就是说哪个选项的内容和概述的内容一致就是答案。因此考生也可以用排除法选答案。


如:OG Title: ARTISANS AND INDUSTRIALIZATION

Paragraph 4

The first generation to experience these changes did not adopt the new attitudes easily. The factory clock became the symbol of the new work rules. One mill worker who finally quit complained revealingly about “obedience to the ding-dong of the bell——just as though we are so many living machines.” With the loss of personal freedom also came the loss of standing in the community…


4. In paragraph 4, the author includes the quotation from a mill worker in order to

○ support the idea that it was difficult for workers to adjust to working in factories

○ to show that workers sometimes quit because of the loud noise made by factory machinery

○ argue that clocks did not have a useful function in factories

○ emphasize that factories were most successful when workers revealed their complaints

分析:此题中我们根据mill worker定位,能定位到原文对应内容为One mill worker who finally quit complained revealingly about “obedience to the ding-dong of the bell——just as though we are so many living machines”, 绕过例子读理论,理论“The first generation to experience these changes did not adopt the new attitudes easily. The factory clock became the symbol of the new work rules.”在例子前面,根据此理论,我们即可以选出正确答案为个选项。


如:OG Title: AGGRESSION

Paragraph 5

The Psychodynamic Approach. Theorists adopting the psychodynamic approach hold that inner conflicts are crucial for understanding human behavior, including … The Freudian perspective, in a sense, see us as “steam engines.” By holding in rather than venting “steam,” we set the stage for future explosions. Pent-up aggressive impulses demand outlets. They may be expressed toward parents in indirect ways…

 

7. Freud describes people as steam engines in order to make the point that people

○ deliberately build up their aggression to make themselves stronger

○ usually release aggression in explosive ways

○ must vent their aggression to prevent it from building up

○ typically lose their aggression if they do not express it.

分析:此题中,我们根据Freud和steam engines定位,原文对应内容为The Freudian perspective, in a sense, see us as “steam engines.” 绕过此例子,定位理论,原文中理论“By holding in rather than venting “steam,” we set the stage for future explosions.”在例子之后,根据此例子,我们可以确定答案为第三个选项。


如:OG Title: EARLY CINEMA

Paragraph 2

These Kinetoscope arcades were modeled on phonograph parlors, which had proven successful for Edison several years earlier. In the phonograph parlors, customers listened to recordings through individual ear tubes, moving from one machine to the next to hear different recorded speeches or pieces of music. The kinetoscopes functioned in a similar way…


2. The author discusses phonograph parlors in paragraph 2 in order to

○ explain Edison’s financial success

○ describe the model used to design Kinetoscope parlors

○ contrast their popularity to that of Kinetoscope parlors

○ illustrate how much more technologically advanced Kinetoscope parlors were

分析:此题中,我们根据phonograph parlors定位,原文对应内容为These Kinetoscope arcades were modeled on phonograph parlors, which had proven successful for Edison several years earlier. In the phonograph parlors, customers listened to recordings through individual ear tubes, moving from one machine to the next to hear different recorded speeches or pieces of music. 绕过此例子,定位理论,原文中理论“The kinetoscopes functioned in a similar way…”在例子之后,根据此例子,我们可以确定答案为第二个选项。




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