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老托福阅读

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  朗阁小编为大家整理了老托福阅读翻译+原文,希望可以帮助广大的托福考生进行更好的复习。托福阅读一直是国内考生们可以得分的项目,如果大家想要取得*的托福考试成绩的,一定要抓住阅读这个项目。更多的免费资源可以关注朗阁教育。


老托福阅读


  PASSAGE 1


  The geology of the Earth's surface is dominated by the particular properties of water. Present on Earth in solid, liquid, and gaseous states, water is exceptionally reactive. It dissolves, transports, and precipitates many chemical compounds and is constantly modifying the face of the Earth.
  Evaporated from the oceans, water vapor forms clouds, some of which are transported by wind over the continents. Condensation from the clouds provides the essential agent of continental erosion: rain. Precipitated onto the ground, the water trickles down to form brooks, streams, and rivers, constituting what are called the hydrographic network. This immense polarized network channels the water toward a single receptacle: an ocean. Gravity dominates this entire step in the cycle because water tends to minimize its potential energy by running from high altitudes toward the reference point, that is, sea level.
  The rate at which a molecule of water passes though the cycle is not random but is a measure of the relative size of the various reservoirs. If we define residence time as the average time for a water molecule to pass through one of the three reservoirs — atmosphere, continent, and ocean — we see that the times are very different. A water molecule stays, on average, eleven days in the atmosphere, one hundred years on a continent and forty thousand years in the ocean. This last figure shows the importance of the ocean as the principal reservoir of the hydrosphere but also the rapidity of water transport on the continents.
  A vast chemical separation process takes places during the flow of water over the continents. Soluble ions such as calcium, sodium, potassium, and some magnesium are dissolved and transported. Insoluble ions such as aluminum, iron, and silicon stay where they are and form the thin, fertile skin of soil on which vegetation can grow. Sometimes soils are destroyed and transported mechanically during flooding. The erosion of the continents thus results from two closely linked and interdependent processes, chemical erosion and mechanical erosion. Their respective interactions and efficiency depend on different factors.


  1. The word "modifying" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
  (A) changing
  (B) traveling
  (C) describing
  (D) destroying


  2. The word "which" in line 5 refers to
  (A) clouds
  (B) oceans
  (C) continents
  (D) compounds


  3. According to the passage , clouds are primarily formed by water
  (A) precipitating onto the ground
  (B) changing from a solid to a liquid state
  (C) evaporating from the oceans
  (D) being carried by wind

  以上是小编给大家推荐的一篇老托福阅读,更多的免费资源大家可以联系朗阁老师。大家在备考过程中一定要好好把握阅读这个大项,这是一个比较好得分的项目。更多内容大家可以在线咨询。

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