朗阁首页 : 托福培训>托福阅读 > 常见托福阅读易忽略词义罗列

常见托福阅读易忽略词义罗列

17-06-06 0人看过

Lily老师从业5年 已帮助 300名学员实现留学梦

笔者曾看到一本帮助大家按照话题分类来罗列词汇的词汇书。立意很好,把杂乱零散的词汇分好了类别再让大家来看,效率就高了。然而,这样的词汇书虽然很不错,但也是存在一些微小的疏忽的,比如crater, 被编者放在了地质话题里,很合理,但是给的意思却让人诧异,作者给出的意思是:弹坑,让我感觉分明是个军事词汇。然而其在托福阅读里最多见的意思就是撞击坑火山口,有时也可以表示动词上形成坑。这几个意思如果不罗列出来,那么一本立意很好、包装又精美的词汇书,就始终让人略感遗憾了。这里就涉及到英语词汇里的一个常见问题了——理解偏差。

 

所以,本篇就一些在托福阅读中常见却又容易让刚入门的学生产生理解偏差的情况,试图做一番归纳,以减轻学生自学的负担

 

序号

词汇

理解上的偏差

例句与出处

与逻辑有关

1

and

会误解为并且,实际上还可理解为因此、所以,只要看出“and”左右两边的事情不是同时发生就可明白意思。

As a result   of crustal adjustments and faulting, the Strait of Gibraltar, where the   Mediterranean now connects to the Atlantic, opened, and water cascaded spectacularly back into the Mediterranean. (TPO7   The Geologic History of the Mediterranean)

2

in turn

会误以为是字典里的头条注释:反过来。实际上可以理解为接着会(发生)…”

The   conventional theory is that people yawn when bored or sleepy because yawning   raises blood oxygen levels, which in   turn raises alertness. (TPO18 The mystery of yawning)

3

allow

往往会理解为是允许,其实常见的是指使可能发生,带有因果逻辑在里面。

Within the   turtle's flippers, there is a countercurrent exchange system that allows colder blood vessels to absorb   heat from nearby warmer blood vessels and then return warmed blood to the   turtle's body. (TPO15 A Warm-Blooded Turtle)

4

permit

同上,也存在使有可能的释义,且确实在托福阅读里较常见。

Extracting   heat from very hot, dry rocks presents a more difficult problem: the rocks   must be fractured to permit the   circulation of water, and the water must be provided artificially. The rocks   are fractured by water pumped down at very high pressures. (TPO21 Geothermal   Energy)

5

responsible

说起负责,其实本身就有导致的意思,比如机场爆炸案,恐怖组织宣布负责,意思就是我导致的,我造成的,并非是常见的涉及关爱的那种负责,这个和日常交流带来的理解偏差有关系。

Higher   temperatures and pressures promote sedimentation, which is responsible for petroleum formation. (TPO4   Petroleum Resources)

6

yet

作为连词,应该要理解为但是

Of course,   the contrast is not quite so stark: in Alexander the Great the Greeks had   found the greatest territorial conqueror of all time; and the Romans, once   they moved outside Italy, did not fail to learn the lessons of sea power. Yet the essential difference is   undeniable. (TPO7 Ancient Rome and Greece)

7

account for

根据个人实际教学,(比例上)占…”解释这两个意思,很多人只知道任意一个。

#Heavy rain accounts for most of the water that   enters into lakes. (TPO24 Lake Water)

#Scientists   will not be able to account for climate changeover the past century until they learn   more about the urban heat island. (TPO48 Climate and Urban Development)

8

suggest

在托福里,真的很少见到建议这种说法,倒是往往与下结论有关,可理解为表明

Timberline   trees are normally evergreens, suggesting   that these have some advantage over deciduous trees (those that lose their   leaves) in the extreme environments of the upper timberline. (TPO1 Timberline   Vegetation on Mountains)

9

though

若是副词,就该理解为然而,可是多数人不明此事,老师在课上应该多强调这种看似简单其实会导致理解有误的词汇。

If true, though, why did cold-blooded animals   such as snakes, lizards, turtles, and crocodiles survive the freezing winters   and torrid summers? (TPO8 Dinosaur Extinctions)

话题词汇

10

precipitation

据个人观察,除了常见的沉淀,学生易忽略降水的意思。

Ordinary   meteoric water is water that has soaked into the ground from the surface,   from precipitation (rain and snow)   and from lakes and streams. (TPO1 Ground Water)

11

game

野生猎物的意思初学者几乎全军覆没。

They had   experienced great difficulty finding game   west of the Rockies and not until the second of December did they kill their   first elk. (TPO4 Deer Populations of the Puget Sound)

12

mine

的意思有三分之一的人不清楚。

This   scenario begins with the planting of hyperaccumulating species in the target   area, such as an abandoned mine or   an irrigation pond contaminated by runoff. (TPO5 Plants and Minerals)

13

crater

托福阅读里多数都是指撞击坑或者火山口

The Mariner   spacecraft found that the surface of Mars, as well as that of its two moons,   is pitted with impact craters   formed by meteoroids falling in from space. (TPO25 The   Surface of Mars)

14

solution

除了解决方案,还要知道溶液也是常见说法。

Mineral   deficiencies in many plants can be cured by misting their roots with a   nutrient solution or by transferring the plants to a soilless nutrient solution. (TPO5 Plants and Minerals)

15

plate

哪能只知道盘子的意思?还要知道板块之意。

Some plates   carry islands or continents others form the seafloor. All are slowly moving   because the plates float on a   denser semi-liquid mantle, the layer between the crust   and Earth’s core. (TPO27 The Formation of Volcanic Islands)

16

current

洋流、电流、气流等,常客了。

形容词词性的注释却更为人所知晓。

The same   thing happens to this day, though on a smaller scale, wherever a   sediment-laden river or stream emerges from a mountain valley onto relatively   flat land, dropping its load as the current slows:   the water usually spreads out fanwise, depositing the sediment in the form of   a smooth, fan-shaped slope. (TPO1 Ground Water)

17

chemical

名词表示化学物质。约一半的人不清楚。

The   Biological Approach. Numerous biological structures and chemicals appear to be involved in aggression. (Official Guide Aggression)

18

browse

觅食这个意思,在托福阅读里其实不算很多见,但是比大家熟知的浏览要多见。

Where the   forest inhibits the growth of grass and other meadow plants, the black-tailed   deer browses on huckleberry,   salal, dogwood, and almost any other shrub or herb. But this is fair-weather   feeding. (TPO4 Deer Populations of the Puget Sound)

19

tension

除了紧张,还有张力,文本里有时候会给解释。

It is held   there by the force of surface tension   without which water would drain instantly from any wet surface, leaving it   totally dry. (TPO1 Ground Water)

20

grain

可以衍生出颗粒的意思。

A few   chondrules contain grains that survived the melting event, so these enigmatic   chondrules must have formed when compact masses of nebular dust were fused at   high temperatures—approaching 1,700 degrees Celsius—and then cooled before   these surviving grains could melt.   (TPO22 The Allende Meteorite)

21

impact

除了影响,不能不知道冲击、撞击

In view of   these facts, scientists hypothesized that a single large asteroid, about 10   to 15 kilometers across, collided with Earth, and the resulting fallout   created the boundary clay. Their calculations show that the impact kicked up a dust cloud that   cut off sunlight for several months, inhibiting photosynthesis in plants;   decreased surface temperatures on continents to below freezing… (TPO8   Dinosaur Extinctions)

22

setting

不仅仅是设置,还要知道背景

Other   statues were designed to be placed within an architectural setting, for instance, in front of   the monumental entrance gateways to temples known as pylons… (TPO11 Ancient Egyptian Sculpture)

23

complex

 

建筑群,常误解为复杂

It had over   2,000 apartment complexes, a great   market, a large number of industrial workshops, an administrative center, a   number of massive religious edifices… (TPO8 The Rise   of Teotihuacán)

24

population

不能一概理解为人口,其他物种可以直接说成数量

when Fort   Vancouver became the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company, deer populations continued to fluctuate.   (TPO4 Deer Populations of the Puget Sound)

25

reflection

反思这个意思不算很常见,但既然出现了就要记住。

Teachers, it   is thought, benefit from the practice of   reflection, the conscious act of thinking deeply about and carefully   examining the interactions and events within their own classrooms. (TPO9 Reflection in Teaching)

与其他有关

26

perspective

观点,不仅仅是透视

The Freudian perspective, in a sense: sees us as “steam   engines”… (Official Guide Aggression)

27

episode

更多是指事件,不能说成,生活总会影响学术。

The K-T   extinction 65 million years ago is the best known of the five major   extinction episodes since the   Cambrian period. (TPO33 Extinction Episodes of the Past)

28

readily

其实是容易地,并非准备之类的。

The release   of heat energy is retarded by the tall vertical city walls that do not allow   infrared radiation to escape as readily as does the relatively level   surface of the surrounding countryside. (TPO48 Climate and Urban Development)

29

edge

优势的说法其实不算多见,但边缘虽知道的人多,其实也不多见。干脆两个都记住好了。

It seems   likely that Teotihuacán’s natural resources, along with the city elite’s   ability to recognize their potential, gave the city a competitive edge over its neighbors. The valley,   like many other places in Mexican and Guatemalan highlands, was rich in   obsidian. (TPO8 The Rise of Teotihuacán)

30

critical

背词汇书的人,恐怕并太清楚有重要的这个释义,挺常见的。

First,   primary groups are critical to the   socialization process. Within them, infants and children are introduced to the   ways of their society. (TPO13 Types of Social Groups)

31

principal

除了名词的意思,就是形容词的意思了,表示主要的

The principal insect enemies of the North   American morning glory feed mainly on its flowers or fruits rather than its   leaves. (TPO34 Protection of Plants by Insects)

32

largely

不能望文生义为,而是应理解为在很大程度上

The   distinctive look of ancient Egyptian sculpture was determined largely by its function. (TPO11   Ancient Egyptian Sculpture)

33

likely

同上,不是喜欢,是可能的

Neither   brown nor red algae are likely to   be ancestors of plants because of their difference in pigmentation. (TPO25 The Evolutionary Origin of Plants)

34

secondary

除了中等的,不能不知道次要的

Also, large blocks thrown aside by   the impact would form secondary   craters surrounding the main crater. (TPO15 Mass Extinctions)

35

passage

全部说成文章,自然奇怪,还要知道通道变迁等意思。

How might   this inability to recall early experiences be explained? The sheer passage of time does not account for   it; adults have excellent recognition of pictures of people who attended high   school with them 35 years earlier. (TPO6 Infantile Amnesia)

36

prevailing

除了流行的,还要知道普遍的

The nature   of plant life in deserts is also highly dependent on the fact that they have   to adapt to the prevailing aridity. (TPO26 Survival of Plants and Animals in   Desert Conditions)

37

considerable

值得考虑的这个意思,笔者在托福里基本没见到过,只见过相当大的相当多的

The   existence of competition has been long known to naturalists; its effects were   described by Darwin in considerable   detail. (TPO29 Competition)

38

evident

都说成证据就不对了,还要知道明显的。其实证据就是让一样被隐藏的东西变得明显,可以这么去记。

Wind   velocity also increases with altitude and may cause serious stress for trees,   as is made evident by the deformed   shapes at high altitudes. (TPO1 Timberline Vegetation on Mountains)

39

collectively

不能望文生义为收集地,还有共同地这个释义较为常见。

Eventually,   six round forms of handwriting, composed of three pairs of big and little   scripts known collectively as the   Six Pens, became the standard repertory of every calligrapher. (TPO34 Islamic   Art and the Book)

40

course

光知道课程怎么行,最起码还要知道路线

In paragraph   2, why does the author mention that some insect populations were separated   from each other by a change in the   course of Mississippi River caused by an earthquake? (TPO31 Speciation in   Geographically Isolated Populations)

41

evenly

甚至无关,因为甚至对应的“even”本来就是个副词,不能再加“-ly”了,此处在托福阅读里有均匀地这个意思。

Petroleum   forms best when organic matter is evenly distributed over ... (TPO43 The Origin of Petroleum)

 


阅读全文

精品课程更多

相关推荐更多

  • 托福阅读满分

    托福阅读理解(reading comprehension)想要达到托福阅读满分应该怎么做?很多同学来问小编要阅读考试技巧,其实再多的技巧也都是辅助性(auxiliary)的,必须要依赖大家自身的基础水平。所以大家必须努力勤奋学习,提升自己的基础,这次是最重要的。小编就给大家介绍一下托福阅读需要哪些训练吧。

  • 托福阅读评分标准介绍

      托福阅读讲究实战演练,但考试与练习毕竟有所区别,我们除了提升阅读能力以外,还必须掌握其评分标准。为了帮助大家找对方向,小编今日就托福阅读评分标准介绍为大家详细讲解,希望对大家有所帮助。

  • 托福阅读评分标准表

    广大托福考生们在备考托福阅读的时候,经常会纠结一个问题就是托福阅读评分标准是什么样的?下面朗阁小编就为大家整理一下托福考试中阅读考试的题型和评分标准表等信息,希望对大家能有帮助。

  • 托福阅读词汇解析:“颜色”的单词含义

    托福考试当中词汇量的要求也是比较高的。那么你的托福词汇?应该如何去准备?怎么样的备考托福词汇才能满足你的托福考试要求?这些需要大家在保证托福考试要求的词汇量的前提下,去深挖托福词汇的词义

免费领取200元优惠券