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常见托福阅读易忽略词义罗列

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笔者曾看到一本帮助大家按照话题分类来罗列词汇的词汇书。立意很好,把杂乱零散的词汇分好了类别再让大家来看,效率就高了。然而,这样的词汇书虽然很不错,但也是存在一些微小的疏忽的,比如crater, 被编者放在了地质话题里,很合理,但是给的意思却让人诧异,作者给出的意思是:弹坑,让我感觉分明是个军事词汇。然而其在托福阅读里较多见的意思就是撞击坑火山口,有时也可以表示动词上形成坑。这几个意思如果不罗列出来,那么一本立意很好、包装又精美的词汇书,就始终让人略感遗憾了。这里就涉及到英语词汇里的一个常见问题了——理解偏差。

 

所以,本篇就一些在托福阅读中常见却又容易让刚入门的学生产生理解偏差的情况,试图做一番归纳,以减轻学生自学的负担

 

序号

词汇

理解上的偏差

例句与出处

与逻辑有关

1

and

会误解为并且,实际上还可理解为因此、所以,只要看出“and”左右两边的事情不是同时发生就可明白意思。

As a result   of crustal adjustments and faulting, the Strait of Gibraltar, where the   Mediterranean now connects to the Atlantic, opened, and water cascaded spectacularly back into the Mediterranean. (TPO7   The Geologic History of the Mediterranean)

2

in turn

会误以为是字典里的头条注释:反过来。实际上可以理解为接着会(发生)…”

The   conventional theory is that people yawn when bored or sleepy because yawning   raises blood oxygen levels, which in   turn raises alertness. (TPO18 The mystery of yawning)

3

allow

往往会理解为是允许,其实常见的是指使可能发生,带有因果逻辑在里面。

Within the   turtle's flippers, there is a countercurrent exchange system that allows colder blood vessels to absorb   heat from nearby warmer blood vessels and then return warmed blood to the   turtle's body. (TPO15 A Warm-Blooded Turtle)

4

permit

同上,也存在使有可能的释义,且确实在托福阅读里较常见。

Extracting   heat from very hot, dry rocks presents a more difficult problem: the rocks   must be fractured to permit the   circulation of water, and the water must be provided artificially. The rocks   are fractured by water pumped down at very high pressures. (TPO21 Geothermal   Energy)

5

responsible

说起负责,其实本身就有导致的意思,比如机场爆炸案,恐怖组织宣布负责,意思就是我导致的,我造成的,并非是常见的涉及关爱的那种负责,这个和日常交流带来的理解偏差有关系。

Higher   temperatures and pressures promote sedimentation, which is responsible for petroleum formation. (TPO4   Petroleum Resources)

6

yet

作为连词,应该要理解为但是

Of course,   the contrast is not quite so stark: in Alexander the Great the Greeks had   found the greatest territorial conqueror of all time; and the Romans, once   they moved outside Italy, did not fail to learn the lessons of sea power. Yet the essential difference is   undeniable. (TPO7 Ancient Rome and Greece)

7

account for

根据个人实际教学,(比例上)占…”解释这两个意思,很多人只知道任意一个。

#Heavy rain accounts for most of the water that   enters into lakes. (TPO24 Lake Water)

#Scientists   will not be able to account for climate changeover the past century until they learn   more about the urban heat island. (TPO48 Climate and Urban Development)

8

suggest

在托福里,真的很少见到建议这种说法,倒是往往与下结论有关,可理解为表明

Timberline   trees are normally evergreens, suggesting   that these have some advantage over deciduous trees (those that lose their   leaves) in the extreme environments of the upper timberline. (TPO1 Timberline   Vegetation on Mountains)

9

though

若是副词,就该理解为然而,可是多数人不明此事,老师在课上应该多强调这种看似简单其实会导致理解有误的词汇。

If true, though, why did cold-blooded animals   such as snakes, lizards, turtles, and crocodiles survive the freezing winters   and torrid summers? (TPO8 Dinosaur Extinctions)

话题词汇

10

precipitation

据个人观察,除了常见的沉淀,学生易忽略降水的意思。

Ordinary   meteoric water is water that has soaked into the ground from the surface,   from precipitation (rain and snow)   and from lakes and streams. (TPO1 Ground Water)

11

game

野生猎物的意思初学者几乎全军覆没。

They had   experienced great difficulty finding game   west of the Rockies and not until the second of December did they kill their   first elk. (TPO4 Deer Populations of the Puget Sound)

12

mine

的意思有三分之一的人不清楚。

This   scenario begins with the planting of hyperaccumulating species in the target   area, such as an abandoned mine or   an irrigation pond contaminated by runoff. (TPO5 Plants and Minerals)

13

crater

托福阅读里多数都是指撞击坑或者火山口

The Mariner   spacecraft found that the surface of Mars, as well as that of its two moons,   is pitted with impact craters   formed by meteoroids falling in from space. (TPO25 The   Surface of Mars)

14

solution

除了解决方案,还要知道溶液也是常见说法。

Mineral   deficiencies in many plants can be cured by misting their roots with a   nutrient solution or by transferring the plants to a soilless nutrient solution. (TPO5 Plants and Minerals)

15

plate

哪能只知道盘子的意思?还要知道板块之意。

Some plates   carry islands or continents others form the seafloor. All are slowly moving   because the plates float on a   denser semi-liquid mantle, the layer between the crust   and Earth’s core. (TPO27 The Formation of Volcanic Islands)

16

current

洋流、电流、气流等,常客了。

形容词词性的注释却更为人所知晓。

The same   thing happens to this day, though on a smaller scale, wherever a   sediment-laden river or stream emerges from a mountain valley onto relatively   flat land, dropping its load as the current slows:   the water usually spreads out fanwise, depositing the sediment in the form of   a smooth, fan-shaped slope. (TPO1 Ground Water)

17

chemical

名词表示化学物质。约一半的人不清楚。

The   Biological Approach. Numerous biological structures and chemicals appear to be involved in aggression. (Official Guide Aggression)

18

browse

觅食这个意思,在托福阅读里其实不算很多见,但是比大家熟知的浏览要多见。

Where the   forest inhibits the growth of grass and other meadow plants, the black-tailed   deer browses on huckleberry,   salal, dogwood, and almost any other shrub or herb. But this is fair-weather   feeding. (TPO4 Deer Populations of the Puget Sound)

19

tension

除了紧张,还有张力,文本里有时候会给解释。

It is held   there by the force of surface tension   without which water would drain instantly from any wet surface, leaving it   totally dry. (TPO1 Ground Water)

20

grain

可以衍生出颗粒的意思。

A few   chondrules contain grains that survived the melting event, so these enigmatic   chondrules must have formed when compact masses of nebular dust were fused at   high temperatures—approaching 1,700 degrees Celsius—and then cooled before   these surviving grains could melt.   (TPO22 The Allende Meteorite)

21

impact

除了影响,不能不知道冲击、撞击

In view of   these facts, scientists hypothesized that a single large asteroid, about 10   to 15 kilometers across, collided with Earth, and the resulting fallout   created the boundary clay. Their calculations show that the impact kicked up a dust cloud that   cut off sunlight for several months, inhibiting photosynthesis in plants;   decreased surface temperatures on continents to below freezing… (TPO8   Dinosaur Extinctions)

22

setting

不仅仅是设置,还要知道背景阅读全文

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