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托福阅读说明文题材详解

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  托福阅读考试中的说明文是较常见的题型之一,鉴于其较大的阅读和解题难度,一直是学生欲罢不能的对象。想要贯彻了解必须先掌握它的文章结构和行文思路。下面小编就“托福阅读说明文题材详解”帮助大家作出整理,希望对大家有所裨益。

托福阅读说明文题材详解


  托福阅读说明文结构讲解
  一般而言,托福阅读中的说明文会说明某个现象,文章的*段是:介绍背景及引出下文;之后的主体段,结构也很清晰:主旨句Topic sentence +  解释句Explain + 举例子Examples + 总结句Summary。 其实跟我们高考语文有异曲同工之妙。下面来看实例解析:
  TPO-19 The Roman Army's Impact on Britain
  In the wake of the Roman Empire's conquest of Britain in the first century  A.D., a large number of troops stayed in the new province, and these troops had  a considerable impact on Britain with their camps, fortifications, and  participation in the local economy. Assessing the impact of the army on the  civilian population starts from the realization that the soldiers were always  unevenly distributed across the country. Areas rapidly incorporated into the  empire were not long affected by the military. Where the army remained  stationed, its presence was much more influential. The imposition of a military  base involved the requisition of native lands for both the fort and the  territory needed to feed and exercise the soldiers' animals. The imposition of  military rule also robbed local leaders of opportunities to participate in local  government, so social development was stunted and the seeds of disaffection sown. This then meant that the military had to remain to suppress rebellion and  organize government.
  留下 these troops had a considerable impact on  Britain;也就是*句说的是罗马军队对英国有影响。这句话相当于对题目的阐述,交代了文章的整个大背景。  之后2~4句其实交代前提,开始具体的说开,要估算军队对平民的影响首先要了解一个事实:士兵不是平均分布的。那既然不是平均分布,肯定是有多有少的。所以,第三句接着说了有些地方士兵少:很快融入帝国的区域;第四句说有些地方士兵多影响大:军队驻扎的地方。第5~7句说回重点,也就是what,到底有哪些影响:军营先要征地;然后会抢走当地*参与政府的机会;之后社会发展受阻,人民不满而反抗,较后军事镇压。
  首段的*句话,虽然句子很长,但其实只需要抓住结构层次进行分析就能找到阅读重点。
  所以总共7句话的段落,分层三个层次,主旨句+前提说明+重点阐述。事实上,段落*句就完成了background+introduction双重目的:英国被罗马帝国征服+  士兵的营地/防御工事以及参与当地经济所造成的影响。
  Economic exchange was clearly very important as the Roman army brought with  it very substantial spending power. …… Such activities had a major effect on the  local area, in particular with the construction of infrastructure such as roads,  which improved access to remote areas.
  第二段一开始就交代了经济交换的影响:强大的*力,以及帮助修建基础设施。
  Each soldier received his pay, but in regions without a developed economy  there was initially little on which it could be spent. …… These settlements  acted like small towns, becoming centers for the artisan and trading  populations.
  第三段还是在讲经济:刚来的时候士兵有钱没地方花;较后军队驻扎地变成了小镇。
  The army also provided a mean of personal advancement for auxiliary soldiers  recruited from the native peoples, as a man obtained hereditary Roman  citizenship on retirement after service in an auxiliary regiment. …… By the  later Roman period, frontier garrisons (groups of soldiers) were only rarely  transferred, service in units became effectively hereditary, and forts were no  longer populated or maintained at full strength.
  第四段开始讲另一个重大影响:当地人通过当兵获得可继承的罗马公民地位。
  This process of settling in as a community over several generations, combined  with local recruitment, presumably accounts for the apparent stability of the  British northern frontier in the later Roman period. It also explains why some  of the forts continued in occupation long after Rome ceased to have any formal  authority in Britain, at the beginning of the fifth century A.D. The  circumstances that had allowed natives to become Romanized also led the  self-sustaining military community of the frontier area to become effectively  British.
  第五段,做了个小总结,讲这种融合过程及当地招募促进了北部边境的稳定。
  通过以上分析,相信大家对说明文的结构思路有了一定的了解,希望大家切实掌握,顺利进步。更多相关资讯请关注朗阁在线托福频道。

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