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新托福考试冲刺试题

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  很多备考新托福的小伙伴,对于托福阅读,可能都会有不知道从何下手的困惑。需要学习的东西太多,考生不知从何下手,小编看来,真题是重中之重。那么,今天小编就为大家分享,新托福阅读冲刺试题;American Railroads。


新托福考试冲刺试题


  American Railroads

  美国铁路

  In the United States, railroads spearheaded the second phase of the transportation revolution by overtaking the previous importance of canals. The mid-1800s saw a great expansion of American railroads. The major cities east of the Mississippi River were linked by a spiderweb of railroad tracks. Chicago's growth illustrates the impact of these rail links. In 1849 Chicago was a village of a few hundred people with virtually no rail service. By 1860 it had become a city of 100,000, served by eleven railroads. Farmers to the north and west of Chicago no longer had to ship their grain, livestock, and dairy products down the Mississippi River to New Orleans; they could now ship their products directly east. Chicago supplanted New Orleans as the interior of America's main commercial hub.

  在美国,铁路超过了以前运河的重要性,成为运输革命的第二阶段的先锋。19世纪中期,美国铁路得到了很大的发展。密西西比河以东的主要城市由蛛网般的铁路轨道连接起来。芝加哥的增长说明了这些铁路连接的影响。1849年,芝加哥是一个拥有几百人的村庄,几乎没有铁路服务。到1860年,它已经成为一个拥有10万人口的城市,由11条铁路服务。芝加哥北部和西部的农民不再需要将他们的粮食、牲畜和乳制品沿着密西西比河运送到新奥尔良;他们现在可以将他们的产品直接运送到东部。芝加哥取代新奥尔良成为美国主要商业中心的内部。

  The east-west rail lines stimulated the settlement and agricultural development of the Midwest. By 1860 Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin had replaced Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York as the leading wheat-growing states. Enabling farmers to speed their products to the East, railroads increased the value of farmland and promoted additional settlement. In turn, population growth in agricultural areas triggered industrial development in cities such as Chicago, Davenport (Iowa), and Minneapolis, for the new settlers needed lumber for fences and houses and mills to grind wheat into flour.

  东西铁路线刺激了中西部地区的定居和农业发展。到1860年,伊利诺伊州、印第安纳州和威斯康星州取代俄亥俄州、宾夕法尼亚州和纽约州成为小麦种植的主要州。铁路使农民能够把他们的产品运到东部,增加了农田的价值,并促进了额外的定居点。反过来,农业地区的人口增长引发了芝加哥、达文波特(爱荷华州)和明尼阿波利斯等城市的工业发展,因为新移民需要木材来修建栅栏,建造房屋和磨坊,将小麦磨成面粉。

  Railroads also propelled the growth of small towns along their routes. The Illinois Central Railroad, which had more track than any other railroad in 1855, made money not only from its traffic but also from real estate speculation. Purchasing land for stations along its path, the Illinois Central then laid out towns around the stations. The selection of Manteno, Illinois, as a stop of the Illinois Central, for example, transformed the site from a crossroads without a single house in 1854 into a bustling town of nearly a thousand in 1860, replete with hotels, lumberyards, grain elevators, and gristmills. By the Civil War (1861-1865), few thought of the railroad-linked Midwest as a frontier region or viewed its inhabitants as pioneers.

  铁路也推动了沿途小城镇的发展。伊利诺伊州中央铁路,在1855年比任何其他铁路都有更多的轨道,它不仅从交通中赚钱,而且从房地产投机中赚钱。伊利诺伊州中部为沿途的车站购买土地,然后在车站周围布置城镇。例如,选择伊利诺伊州曼特诺作为伊利诺伊州中部的一个站点,将该站点从1854年一个没有一栋房子的十字路口改造成1860年一个拥有近千人的繁华小镇,这里充斥着酒店、伐木场、谷物升降机和垃圾场。到了内战(1861-1865年),很少有人认为连接中西部的铁路是一个边疆地区,也很少有人认为它的居民是先驱者。

  As the nation's first big business, the railroads transformed the conduct of business. During the early 1830s, railroads, like canals, depended on financial aid from state governments. With the onset of economic depression in the late 1830s, however, state governments scrapped overly ambitious railroad projects. Convinced that railroads burdened them with high taxes and blasted hopes, voters turned against state aid, and in the early 1840s, several states amended their constitutions to bar state funding for railroads and canals. The federal government took up some of the slack, but federal aid did not provide a major stimulus to railroads before 1860. Rather, part of the burden of finance passed to city and county governments in agricultural areas that wanted to attract railroads. Such municipal governments, for example, often gave railroads rights-of-way, grants of land for stations, and public funds.

  作为国家第一大商业,铁路改变了商业行为。在19世纪30年代早期,铁路和运河一样依赖于州政府的财政援助。然而,随着19世纪30年代末经济萧条的开始,州政府取消了过于雄心勃勃的铁路项目。选民们深信,铁路给他们带来了沉重的税收和沉重的希望,于是转而反对国家援助。在19世纪40年代初,几个州修改了宪法,禁止国家资助铁路和运河。联邦政府采取了一些松懈,但联邦援助没有提供一个主要的刺激铁路在1860年之前。相反,部分财政负担转移到了农业地区的市和县政府,这些政府希望吸引铁路。例如,这些市政府经常给予铁路通行权、车站用地和公共资金。

  The dramatic expansion of the railroad network in the 1850s, however, strained the financing capacity of local governments and required a turn toward private investment, which had never been absent from the picture. Well aware of the economic benefits of railroads, individuals living near them had long purchased railroad stock issued by governments and had directly bought stock in railroads, often paying by contributing their labor to building the railroads. But the large railroads of the 1850s needed more capital than such small investors could generate. Gradually, the center of railroad financing shifted to New York City, and in fact, it was the railroad boom of the 1850s that helped make Wall Street in New York City the nation's greatest capital market. The stocks of all the leading railroads were traded on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange during the 1850s. In addition, the growth of railroads turned New York City into the center of modern investment firms. The investment firms evaluated the stock of railroads in the smaller American cities and then found purchasers for these stocks in New York City, Philadelphia, Paris, London, Amsterdam, and Hamburg. Controlling the flow of funds to railroads, the investment bankers began to exert influence over the railroads' internal affairs by supervising administrative reorganizations in times of trouble.

  然而,19世纪50年代铁路网络的急剧扩张,使地方政府的融资能力受到了限制,需要转向私人投资,这一点从未被忽视过。由于很清楚铁路的经济效益,居住在附近的人长期购买政府发行的铁路股票,并直接购买铁路股票,通常通过为修建铁路付出劳动来支付。但19世纪50年代的大型铁路需要的资本比这些小投资者能创造的要多。渐渐地,铁路融资中心转移到了纽约市,事实上,正是19世纪50年代的铁路繁荣使纽约市的华尔街成为了全国最大的资本市场。19世纪50年代,所有主要铁路公司的股票都在纽约证券交易所交易。此外,铁路的发展使纽约成为现代投资公司的中心。投资公司评估了美国小城市的铁路库存,然后在纽约、费城、巴黎、伦敦、阿姆斯特丹和汉堡找到了这些库存的买家。在控制资金流向铁路的过程中,投资银行家们开始通过在困难时期监督行政重组来影响铁路的内部事务。

  Question 1 of 5

  According to paragraph 1, what effect did the expansion of rail links have on Chicago?

  A. Chicago became the headquarters for eleven new railroads.

  B. Chicago became the most important city east of the Mississippi River.

  C. Chicago was transformed from a village into a large city.

  D. Chicago replaced eastern cities as the main buyer of farm products from the region.

  Question 2 of 5

  Paragraph 2 supports the idea that Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin were able to become the leading wheat-growing states by 1860 in large part because

  A. by 1860 there were more railroads in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin than in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York.

  B. the expansion of east-west rail lines made transporting Midwestern products to East Coast markets relatively fast and easy.

  C. by 1860 states such as Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York had become more interested in industrial development than in agriculture.

  D. most of the farmers who had grown wheat in Ohio, Pennsylvania, or New York resettled in the Midwest after the expansion of east-west rail lines.

  Question 3 of 5

  The word "promoted" in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. encouraged.

  B. controlled.

  C. promised.

  D. predicted.

  Question 4 of 5

  According to paragraph 2, one effect of the increased agricultural development in the Midwest was to

  A. slow the rate at which population grew in many Midwestern cities.

  B. increase the demand for industrial products from Midwestern cities.

  C. encourage the extension of east-west rail lines to the Midwest.

  D. reduce the pressure on Midwestern farmers to get their products to market faster.

  Question 5 of 5

  The author mentions "Manteno, Illinois" in order to

  A. give an example of how railroads decided which small towns would be selected for stations.

  B. illustrate the power of railroads to determine where towns would come into existence.

  C. explain how some railroads were able to make more money from real estate speculation than from railroad traffic.

  D. show how people's view of the Midwest as a frontier region had changed by the Civil War.

    以上就是小编为大家整理的新托福考试的阅读冲刺试题了,希望能够给各位辛苦备考的小伙伴,带来一些帮助。当然,我们在平常的练习中,也不能少了真题的演练,再加上不断的总结易错点,逐步提升自己的英语水平。


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