The history of vocabulary is, in many ways, the record of civilization.
(a) I came upon an old classmate when I went to town yesterday.
(b) When I went to town yesterday, I came upon an old classmate.
(a) Steel is commonly used to make knives, razors and other useful tools because of its durability.
(b) Because of its durability, steel is commonly used to make knives, razors and other useful tools.
(a) That singer's life was tragic and brief.
(b) That singer's life was brief and tragic.
Tony ate his dinner, watched TV, and then went to bed.
...the land stretched out without names. Nameless headlands split the surf; nameless lakes reflected the nameless mountains and nameless rivers flowed through nameless valleys and nameless bays.
1. 俗话(古语)说，……：As an old saying goes/ As an old proverb says, ….例句：
As an old saying goes, god helps those who help themselves.(俗话说，自助者天助之。)
2. 据报道/据估计/据说/据信，……：It is reported/estimated/said/thought/believed that….
It is estimated that it will take about three years to finish the project.(据估计，需要三年来完成这个项目。)
3. 也就是说，……：In other words/Namely/To put it another way/ That is to say, ….
She was too trusting. In other words, she had no head for business.(她太轻信人，换句话说，她没有商业头脑。)
4. 考虑到……：Considering/Regarding/In view of,….
In the view of the fact, this approach is inadvisable.
5. 为了……：for the sake of/for purposes of/in order to achieve sth, …
They seem to have doing nothing but reading, acquiring more knowledge and really essentially just learning for the sake of learning.(他们好像除了读书，掌握更多知识、为了学习而学习之外，什么也不做。)
6. 很容易理解/*……：It can be easily understood/proved that….
It can be easily proved that one cannot achieve success unless he or she keeps on working hard.(很容易*：除非一个人坚持不懈一直努力，否则他(她)很难取得成功。)