讽刺者说，我们年轻人不需要你们定义。拒绝“爹味”隔离现实的自嗨。 因为真实的现实是，*正发生巨变，而年轻人在担心自己是否已经准备好了。 今天要分享的写作素材就是来自《经济学人》里的一篇 关于青年人工作的文章,总结了年轻人工作难的2个原因。适用于托福：工作；年轻人话题。
工作的天地正在改变。人们是否已准备好迎接新的工作前景？一个调查41个国家的1*青少年调查发现，青少年可能对未来可供自己选择的工作种类抱有不切实际 的预期。The world of work is changing. Are people ready for the new job outlook? A survey of 15-year-olds across 41 countries found that teenagers may have unrealistic expectations about the kind of work that will be available. 青少年的选择集中在那些较热门的工作上。五个较受欢迎的选择中有四个是传统的职业角色：医生、教师、企业管理者和律师。Teenagers clustered around the most popular jobs. Four of the five most popular choices were traditional professional roles: doctors, teachers, business managers and lawyers. 原因1: 这种选择结果的部分原因是受调查者的一厢情愿（设计师、演员和音乐表演者位列较热门的15个职业）。总归得让年轻人怀揣一些希望嘛。我十几岁时立志为英格兰板球队效力，并成为首相，结果壮志未酬。The rationale for this selection was partly down to wishful thinking on the part of those surveyed (designers, actors and musical performers were three of the top 15 jobs). Youth must be allowed a bit of hope. When I was a teenager, my ambitions were to play cricket for England and become prime minister; neither ambition was achieved.the rationale for. ...的基本原理2. 再者，很难指望青少年能深入了解劳动力市场趋势的细微之处。他们在日常生活中会接触到医生和老师，通过电影和社交媒体熟悉其他受欢迎的职业，如律师和警察。但许多人较终都从事了他们上学时听都没听过的工作。能有碗饭吃就不错了。Furthermore, teenagers can hardly be expected to have an in-depth knowledge of the minutiae of labour-market trends. They will have encountered doctors and teachers in their daily lives. Other popular professions, such as lawyers and police officers, will be familiar from films and social media. But many people end up in jobs they would not have heard of in their school years. You settle for what is available.
have an in-depth konwledge of:对..有深入了解
尽管在数学或科学上表现较优的男女生人数不相上下，但不同性别在志向上仍存在差异。想要从事科学或工程类工作的男孩比女孩多。这个问题在高等教育中持续：除生物和生物医学外，STEM学科（科学、技术、工程和 数学）的学位获得者多为男性。Even though top performers in maths or science are evenly matched among males and females, a gender gap persists in terms of aspiration. More boys than girls expect to work in science or engineering. The problem continues in higher education; with the exception of biological and biomedical sciences, degrees in STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and maths) are male-dominated.in terms of aspiration. 在志向方面女性在医疗和社会照护部门发挥的作用要大得多，这些部门也呈扩张之势。问题是其中某些岗位没什么"钱途”。家庭保健助理和个护助理（岗位增速分列第三和第四）在 2018年的年薪中位数略高于2.4万美元。Women play a much bigger role in the health- and social-care sectors, which are also poised for expansion. The snag is that some of these jobs are not very well paid. Home-health and personal-care aides (with the third- and fourth-fastest growth rates, respectively) had median annual salaries in 2018 of just over $24,000. 当然，医疗领域的某些工作薪资极为丰厚。但在这里再次出现了性别失衡：女性仅占美国医疗行业高管的三分之一。相比之下，她们往往是低薪的社会照护工作的主力。这显示出男性回避这个领域，也许是因为他们觉得照顾别人这件事不能彰显男子气概。Some jobs in health care are extremely lucrative, of course. But another gender imbalance emerges here: women make up only one-third of American health-care executives. In contrast, they tend to dominate the poorly paid social-care workforce. Men shun the field, perhaps because they do not perceive caring to be a masculine trait.lucrative. adj. 赚钱的，可获利的. 如此看来，劳动力市场上较大的问题可能并非青少年盯着少数众所周知的工作，而可能是一种不匹配：没有足够的杰出女性进入技术领域，也没有足够的男性从事社会照护工作。无论问题的根源在哪里一一是教育系统、政府政策还是企业招聘操作 一一都需要把它找出来解决。The biggest problem in the labor market, then, may not be that teenagers are focusing on a few well-known jobs. It could be a mismatch: not enough talented women move into technology and not enough men take jobs in social care. Wherever the root of the problem lies—be it the education system, government policy or corporate recruiting practices—it needs to be identified and fixed（解决）.