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浅谈托福写作,深入了解思路!

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先说综合写作,综合写作阅读部分:托福文章的结构一般比较清晰,如快速浏览首段的*句话就可大致知道全文的主题,而读懂首段较后一个句子或是后半部分一般就可以知晓作者的全文态度和观点了。阅读部分较主要要抓住中心思想和三个分论点。但是细节和论证也需要稍加注意。中心思想一般在开头段的较后一句话,如果中间出现了专有名词和代词,则需要往前看找相应的解释。三个分论点一般都在全文的三个主体段落的首句或者是末句,如何判断是哪一句,则需要把握两点:*,是否与中心思想直接有关;第二,是否是简明扼要表明观点的句子。剩余的内容则是每条理由的*过程了。


综合写作听力部分;听力一般是对阅读进行反驳,因此,在听力的过程中,一定要注意讲话者的态度和观点,要抓准讲话者的反驳语气和反驳的内容,从而找到听力与阅读的反驳关系。而且听力一般每个分论点的细节不会多于两个,但要注意的是听力提出的细节是阅读之前已经提到的并加以反驳的,还是讲话者提出的新论据。具备一定听力技巧的同学都知道,听的过程中学会定位是至关重要的。而在我们综合写作中这一技能也是十分必须的。不论是停顿时间还是表示顺序的连接词,或是代表语义转换的语气词等都是一个不错的判断分段的标志。可是毕竟因为只有一遍的听力机会,所以有些停顿甚至是连词都未必能完全听到,因为事先毫无征兆。而这些必然会出现的关键词却不同,因为我们事先知道阅读对应段落的内容并且可以事先预测到了,所以其实较牢靠的定位方法还是利用每段中心句中的关键词来判断。


综合写作的写作部分;一般来讲,综合写作的结构分为四段式就足够了,开头一段,中间三段是三个分论点的论证; 结尾段则不是必需的,考生在考试的时候可以略过或大概总结下。开头段一定要讲明听力的主要观点,即中心思想,而且还要论证清楚听力与阅读的反驳对立的逻辑关系。中间段的每段就是听力和阅读就每个分论点的反驳。考生可以先列清楚阅读的主要观点,然后再加上表示对比的连接词,如while,however,on the contrary之类,后面紧跟听力的主要观点,再之后就是对此观点详细论证的细节。

我们在来看看独立写作。在独立写作部分大家抱怨较多的,恐怕就是“这题咋写呀?” “这有啥可讨论的?” “没思路。。。”确实,挺多的独立写作题目看似比较刁钻,或者比较抽象,让人一时想不到破解之法,如果在考场上碰到了,确实让人着急。其实,之所以大家觉得题目刁钻或抽象,是和我们平时的思维方式有关的。我国同学的思维通常是抽象的,总结性质的,这种思维方式擅长去做给了足够场景和细节的题目,比如这道题:

To be happy, it is more important to maintain a small group of friends over a long period of time than it is to make new friends.


对于这样有具体场景的题目,我们比较容易找到分论点,习惯性思维没有受阻。但是,如果是这样一道题呢:

The rules today are too strict for young people to follow.


相信很多考生碰到这道题的时候,都会有些不知所措,因为这道题太抽象了,给出的细节信息太少了。怎么找到思路呢?我们只需要把抽象的题目进行具体化就好了。先来分析一下,针对年轻人,都有哪些rules?交通规则肯定不行,因为交通规则是所有人都必须遵守的;所以,诚实守信,遵纪守法,以及尊老爱幼,这些也都不行。而校服(uniforms),或者说校园着装规范(dress codes),这个规则是针对年轻人的,以及校园内的几乎所有规则,都在这道题的讨论范围内。所以我们可以把这个抽象的题目转化成:学校要求学生只能穿校服的规定是不是过于严格呢?是不是思路好想多了呢?


关于这个题目的另外一些具体的例子是:一定年龄以下禁烟,禁酒,不能使用信用卡,不能考驾照,或者美国有些州学生平均成绩达不到C以上,驾照会吊销,等等。这些规则合理吗?是否太过严格?大家可以自己想想思路。

较后,在给大家带来一篇范文:

题目:Some people believe that success in life comes from taking risks or chances. Others believe that success results from careful planning. In your opinion, what does success come from? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

范文:Once upon time, a man pleaded a piece of land from a tribe chief. The chief gave the man a pole and told him that if he could insert the pole in a place from which he could come back before the sunset, the land between tribe station and the pole would belong to him. The man was so greedy that he exhausted to death on the way back. From this story we can see that although the man had his goal and action, he had no plan. A good plan is essential for success. It can quantify the task and make it possible for a man to arrange his time effectively.Secondly, the advantage of good planning is that one can dispose his time and energy more effectively. It occurs very often in life that one should do a lot of things simultaneously. To take care of his children, to work, to spend enough time with his family and friends, only by a careful planning can a man accomplish his several targets in a short time.

Let us come back to the former story. If the man were a coward he would always fear that he could not come back before the sunset. The answer must be that he got much less than what he could have. Therefore success, to some extent, needs risk. But I think a careful plan is more important because it changes success into a routine and it helps a man use his time more effectively.

First, by means of planning a man quantifies his task. He divides his final target into several periodic ones. Thus, he could average the pressure and see his progress during each period. A good plan encourages a man to fulfill his destination positively rather than passively. Actually, all successful people have their careful plans. For example, an excellent student must have a study schedule that include how to learn new knowledge and how to review old contents; an outstanding businessman needs a rational marketing plan that defines the best avenues to reach his target customers and then assigns a reasonable budget to his efforts. If one could execute his periodic target successfully every time, he could easily achieve his ultimate target. More significantly, during this process a man will acquire a lot of qualities that are essential to success.


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