接下来，我们就通过剑16的Test 1的第三篇阅读文章 The future of work 和一篇关于人工智能Artificial Intelligence的大作文，来探讨一下如何充分利用雅思阅读的文章，积累词汇和句型，来*雅思写作的分数。
Some scientists believe that in the future computers will be more intelligent than human beings. While some see this as a positive development others worry about the negative consequences. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
According to a leading business consultancy, 3-14% of the global workforce will need to switch to a different occupation within the next 10-15 years, and all workers will need to adapt as their occupations evolve alongside increasingly capable machines. Automation – or ‘embodied artificial intelligence’ (AI) – is one aspect of the disruptive effects of technology on the labour market. ‘Disembodied AI’, like the algorithms running in our smartphones, is another.
according to a leading business consultancy 根据一项主要的商业咨询结果
global workforce 全球劳动力
switch to a different occupation换工作
alongside increasingly capable machines随着机器越来越智能
embodied artificial intelligence 实体的人工智能(只智能机器，比如家用的扫地机器人、自动洗碗机等)
have disruptive effects on对…有破坏性的影响
disembodied artificial intelligence非实体的人工智能(手机里的后台运算)
Dr Stella Pachidi from Cambridge Judge Business School believes that some of the most fundamental changes are happening as a result of the ‘algorithmication’ of jobs that are dependent on data rather than on production – the so-called knowledge economy. Algorithms are capable of learning from data to undertake tasks that previously needed human judgement, such as reading legal contracts, analysing medical scans and gathering market intelligence市场信息.
are dependent on依赖
are capable of能够
undertake tasks that previously needed human judgement 执行过去需要人类判断的任务
reading legal contracts, analysing medical scans and gathering market intelligence阅读法律合同、分析医疗扫描，收集市场信息(雅思写作的句内拓展就是需要对名词进行举例，这样的表达需要大量积累)
‘In many cases, they can outperform humans,’ says Pachidi. ‘Organisations are attracted to using algorithms because they want to make choices based on what they consider is “perfect information”, as well as to reduce costs and enhance productivity.’
in many cases在很多情况下
Machines can outperform humans. 机器比人做的好。
reduce costs and enhance productivity降低成本，*生产力
‘But these enhancements are not without consequences,’ says Pachidi. ‘If routine cognitive tasks are taken over by AI, how do professions develop their future experts?’ she asks. ‘One way of learning about a job is “legitimate peripheral外围的，附带的 participation” – a novice新手 stands next to experts and learns by observation. If this isn’t happening, then you need to find new ways to learn.’
These enhancements are not without consequences. 这些改善并不是没有后果(在很多大作文话题里都可以用到这句)。
routine cognitive tasks日常的认知工作
Another issue is the extent to which the technology influences or even controls the workforce. For over two years, Pachidi monitored a telecommunications电信 company. ‘The way telecoms salespeople work is through personal and frequent contact with clients, using the benefit of experience to assess a situation and reach a decision. However, the company had started using a[n] … algorithm that defined when account managers should contact certain customers about which kinds of campaigns and what to offer them.’
though personal and frequent contact with clients通过个人的频繁的与客户联系
assess a situation and reach a decision评估状况，做出决定
The algorithm – usually build by external designers – often becomes the keeper of knowledge, she explains. In cases like this, Pachidi believes, a short-sighted view begins to creep into working practices whereby workers learn through the ‘algorithm’s eyes’ and become dependent on its instructions. Alternative explorations – where experimentation and human instinct lead to progress and new ideas – are effectively discouraged.
A short-sighted view begins to creep into …目光短浅的观点开始悄悄混进…
are effectively discouraged 被有效地阻止了
Pachidi and colleagues even observed people developing strategies to make the algorithm work to their own advantage. ‘We are seeing cases where workers feed the algorithm with false data to reach their targets,’ she reports.
It’s scenarios like these that many researchers are working to avoid. Their objective is to make AI technologies more trustworthy and transparent, so that organisations and individuals understand how AI decisions are made. In the meantime, says Pachidi, ‘We need to make sure we fully understand the dilemmas that this new world raises regarding expertise, occupational boundaries and control.’
Their objective is to …他们的目的是…
trustworthy and transparent值得信赖的，透明的
in the meantime同时
Economist Professor Hamish Low believes that the future of work will involve major transitions across the whole life course生命历程 for everyone: ‘The traditional trajectory发展轨迹 of full-time education followed by full-time work followed by a pensioned retirement is a thing of the past,’ says Low. Instead, he envisages设想，展望 a multistage employment life: one where retraining再培训 happens across the life course, and where multiple jobs and no job happen by choice出于自己的选择 at different stages.
The future of work will involve major transitions across the whole life course for everyone未来的工作对每个人来说，重大的转变都要伴随一生
The traditional trajectory发展轨迹 of full-time education followed by full-time work followed by a pensioned retirement is a thing of the past. 传统的人生轨迹——全职教育，全职工作，*后领退休金——是过去的事情了。
On the subject of 涉及 job losses, Low believes the predictions are founded on a fallacy缪见: ‘It assumes that the number of jobs is fixed. If in 30 years, half of 100 jobs are being carried out by robots, that doesn’t mean we are left with just 50 jobs for humans. The number of jobs will increase: we would expect there to be 150 jobs.’
on the subject of 涉及
Dr Ewan McGaughey, at Cambridge’s Centre for Business Research and King’s College London, agrees that ‘apocalyptic 预示大灾难的’ views about the future of work are misguided. ‘It’s the laws that restrict the supply of capital to the job market, not the advent of new technologies that causes unemployment.’
apocalyptic views 预示大灾难的观点
are misguided 是误导的
the advent of new technology 新科技的出现
His recently published research answers the question of whether automation, AI and robotics will mean a ‘jobless future’ by looking at the causes of unemployment. ‘History is clear that change can mean redundancies 裁员. But social policies can tackle this through retraining and redeployment.’
Social policies can tackle this through …政策可以解决这个问题，通过…
He adds: ‘If there is going to be change to jobs as a result of AI and robotics then I’d like to see governments seizing the opportunity to improve policy to enforce good job security. We can “reprogramme” the law to prepare for a fairer future of work and leisure.’ McGaughey’s findings are a call to arms战斗的号令 to leaders of organisations, governments and banks to pre-empt抢在…之前行动 the coming changes with bold new policies that guarantee full employment, fair incomes and a thriving economic democracy.
seize the opportunity 抓住机会
enforce good job security加强工作*障
pre-empt the coming changes with bold new policies that guarantee …在变化之前采取行动，利用大胆创新的政策去*证…
a thriving economic democracy 繁荣的经济体
‘The promises 前途 of these new technologies are astounding. They deliver humankind the capacity to live in a way that nobody could have once imagined,’ he adds. ‘Just as the industrial revolution brought people past subsistence agriculture 温饱型农业, and the corporate revolution enabled mass production, a third revolution has been pronounced. But it will not only be one of technology. The next revolution will be social.’
The promises of …are astounding. …的前途是令人震惊的。
deliver humankind the capacity to …给人类带来…能力
Industrial revolution brought people past subsistence agriculture. 工业革命使人类度过了温饱型农业社会。
A third revolution has been pronounced. 第三次革命已经来临。