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雅思写作高分何处寻,套路一下?

来源:朗阁教育 2019-10-30 编辑:yawen 485人看过 10万人已领免费资料    雅思托福0元试学

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朗阁海外考试中心的老师带各位烤鸭们一一揭开“套路”那神秘的面纱。由于文章篇幅的局限性,本篇文章就以占分2/3之多的大作文来带大家详细分析一下雅思写作考试中最重要的套路之1:文章的逻辑架构如何有效展开?

毛泽东主席在《忆秦娥 娄山关》里写到“雄关漫道真如铁,而今迈步从头越”用来预示当时虽然红军的处境艰难,但是最后还是勇敢攻克的状况。而很多烤鸭面对的也是“雅思写作真如铁”的窘境,如何勇敢攻克呢,何不套路一下?当然,肯定有人会反驳我,这里所说的套路是所谓的模板句的意思吗?不是不能用模板吗?用了模板不是说千年5.5吗?如果不是这些,那么你说的套路到底是什么呢?此处,朗阁海外考试中心的老师带各位烤鸭们一一揭开“套路”那神秘的面纱。由于文章篇幅的局限性,本篇文章就以占分2/3之多的大作文来带大家详细分析一下雅思写作考试中最重要的套路之1:文章的逻辑架构如何有效展开?

大作文的考察主要有两种形式,一个是argumentation辩论类的考察,一个是report报告类的考察。这两类文章argumentation的考察占了将近90%,所以当然是各位烤鸭备考准备的重中之重。但是,因为辩论类的文章的难度相对较高,整个文章的结构的有效展开成了很多烤鸭们的问题所在。那么,朗阁海外考试中心的老师带大家分别了解三大类argumentation题型的文章结构的展开方式。

l Positive or negative

出题形式:

给出一个现如今比较热门的现象或者趋势,然后问:

Is it a positive or negative trend?

Do advantages/benefits of a outweigh its disadvantages/problems/troubles?

回答重心:

要有自己清晰的立场。一定要给出你的立场,例如是积极的发展还是消极的发展,例如是利大于弊还是弊大于利?这些立场对于文章的整体的逻辑结构是有很大影响的。此处以利大于弊来进行举例,如果考生持有的观点是弊大于利的话,只要稍加举一反三就可以了。

伪套路:

有些人认为,既然要写利大于弊,那么在篇幅上来体现就可以了。例如写出来的结构就是:开头段+利的讨论(2-3点)+弊的讨论(2点)+结尾段。朗阁海外考试中心的老师认为,如果只是通过篇幅来体现利弊谁更多的话,可信度实在是低。

真套路:

如果以上的是伪套路的话,何种套路才是值得get的呢?要知道,利大于弊的体现应该不仅仅在于数量,更要在于内容,在于程度。不妨举个例子来说明:我妈让我嫁给吴彦祖,positive or negative development? 然后你给出的支持的观点是:嫁给吴彦祖的好处之一是眼睛大,改善我们家的小眼基因;好处之二是腿长,审美上很舒服;但是不得不承认的是他是一个骗子。发现了吗?虽然缺陷只写了一个,好处写了两个,但这个坏处的晕圈老早超过了两个好处叠加所带来的光环吧。所以呢,只靠篇幅和数量是难以说服考官相信我们的立场,也就难以拿到好的分数了。小编认为,一定要靠内容取胜。例如还说吴彦祖的例子,只要你稍稍加一丢丢,情况就能逆转了。你给出的支持的观点依然是:嫁给吴彦祖的好处之一是眼睛大,改善我们家的小眼基因;好处之二是腿长,审美上很舒服;但是不得不承认的是他是一个骗子;但是你知道吗,自从他遇到我之后,再也不骗人了。有没有发现,加上了后面的转折之后,一下子就能说服别人。首先肯定了缺陷依然存在,但是这些缺陷时可以控制的,甚至是很容易被解决的。这样一来,是不是缺陷就被极大的弱化了呢?

当然,雅思写作考试不像儿戏啦,话题上更学术,但是道理还是这个道理,不妨,你看:

Cambridge 9 Test 1 Task 2

Some experts believe that students should begin to learn a foreign language in primary school rather than secondary school. Do advantages outweigh its disadvantages?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

这篇文章的大致结构(以利大于弊来进行举例)应该是这样:开头段+利(2点)+弊端(让步,弊端+解释+可控) +结尾;具体的逻辑结构详细来讲大致如此:

Opening:表达自己的观点,从小学开始学外语的利是大于弊端的

Body 1:分别讨论从小学开始学外语(相较于从中学开始学外语)的好处之一,好处之二分别是什么。

利1:biologically 最佳学外语的时间是8-12岁 (primary school years)。因为此时学生们retain their flexible baby-brains--- a good sense of memory;而且他们这个时候对于新鲜的事物有着强烈的curiosity –> Be inclined to be attracted

利2:小学学习压力小less academic pressure,所以时间充足sufficient time to provide various forms to cultivate students’ interest of language learning,可以有各种各样的形式来培养小孩儿语言学习的兴趣(various forms like games, poems, songs, storytelling or novels to cultivate students’ interest of linguistic learning)

Body 2:弊端的让步段

例如可以写:虽然从小学开始学,学得快,但是忘得也快,因为小学的外语学习往往以兴趣培养为主,因而也往往缺乏非常系统性的学习(Be scarce of systematic learning);但是,这种缺陷依然是可控的。因为只要后面的阶段继续加强学习,其实不会忘记的。(but such disadvantage can be compensated by further learning in secondary school.)

或者也可以写:小学的时候学太多外语徒增小孩儿的压力Intensify students’/children’s academic pressure,因为那些本来可以用于玩耍的时间都被外语学习所占据了(The time that should have been consumed on playing is occupied by language learning/linguistic learning);即便如此,这样的缺陷仍然是可以控制的。因为只要把握好度,把学习的重心放在兴趣的培养而非学术层面上的话,压力的问题基本上就可以忽略不计了。However, the disadvantage can be ignored if the emphasis is attached onto interest-cultivation rather than academic level, i.e. grammar usage or lexical resources.缺陷两者一点即可,

Ending:总结全文,简而言之,虽然也会带来一些缺陷,但是好处依旧更多啊。

l Discussion

出题形式:

给出两拨人的态度,经常出现的搭配是:some people think & others和in some countries &in others;然后让考生们进行讨论。文章题干经常出现的关键词是:

1. Discuss both ideas and give your own opinion.

2. Discuss both ideas and state which one do you prefer.

3. What is your opinion?

4. Which one is better/appropriate?

各位烤鸭们可以思考一个问题,就是这四种表达方式,对于我们的写作,尤其是整个文章的逻辑架构有没有什么影响呢?答案当然是肯定的,1和3其实只需要大家给出自己的想法,无论是单边还是中立的,都没有关系。但是2和4这两种关键词,其实预示着考生们一定要从两个观点中选择其一,也就是我们经常说的单边观点了。

回答重心:

此类题目的重点和难点在于,其实很多烤鸭们也深知,无论题目中有没有提到discuss both ideas这样的字眼,两个观点都是要讨论的。但是在分别讨论A/B两个观点的时候,会比较纠结,到底是讨论A的合理性还是不合理性呢,B呢?朗阁海外考试中心的老师会告诉你,that depends. 那到底取决于什么呢?

伪套路:

很多伪套路会告诉你,直接说两个观点都是合理的(both ideas are reasonable),然后给出一个非常套路的结构:开头段+A(合理性2个)+B(合理性2个)+结尾段。试问一下,是不是所有的题目都能这样去说呢?实际上,在很多情况之下,A观点和B观点会存在一定的对立性,例如经典考题:办公地点的选择问题,问到底是在家工作好还是在公司工作好,其实考生们如果要说两个观点都合理应结合在一起的话,如何结合呢?或者有些考生会指出在家工作好还是在公司工作好取决于具体的行业,那么这种文章的body逻辑结构应该按情况讨论,何种行业在家工作比较好,又是何种行业在公司工作比较好;再例如,有些人认为only the best students should be rewarded,而其他人则认为those who make progress need be rewarded as well.这个题目如果是说both ideas are reasonable显然是不合理的。为什么不合理呢?A观点和B观点是冲突的呀。A观点认为只有最优秀的学生需要被奖励,而B观点则认为最优秀的学生和进步的学生都需要被奖励。所以,此时如果你想要写更加中立的观点的话,你实际上赞成的是B观点本身,而不是直接说both ideas are reasonable.再例如2019年9月12日刚出现的大作文原题:In some countries, secondary schools aim to provide a general education across a wide range of subjects. In others, children focus on a narrow range of subjects related to a particular career. In today’s world, which system is more appropriate? 很显然,必须要二择一表达自己的观点的,并不能直接说both ideas are reasonable的。而且,如果选择了其中一个观点,例如general education across a wide range of subjects的话,body的逻辑架构也有问题,如果分别讨论general education和special education的合理之处,最后却选择了A观点,不是非常的诡异吗?

真套路:

值得肯定的大框架是,整个文章还是比较推荐大家写四段式:开头段+A观点的讨论+B观点的讨论+结尾段。但是具体A观点和B观点到底讨论什么是取决于“own perspective”也就是自己的立场的。那么此处,朗阁海外考试中心的老师会分单边和中立两种情况带大家看看文章的逻辑架构。

单边:

开头段(A观点)+ A(合理性2点)+ B(合理性1点+but 反驳)+结尾段

但很多烤鸭们看到这样的结构还是觉得很是抽象,无法理解,那就用具体真题来讲咯。例如最新热乎出炉的题目:

V20190912

In some countries, secondary schools aim to provide a general education across a wide range of subjects. In others, children focus on a narrow range of subjects related to a particular career. In today’s world, which system is more appropriate?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Opening:表明自己的态度,对于初中生来说,general education across a wide range of subjects是更加适合的。(附上朗阁海外考试中心的老师的原创范文)

Sampling answer:

Aiming to cultivating specialists, rather than so-called general ones, secondary schooling in some countries tends to only encapsulate a narrow range of subjects relevant with specific professions. From my perspective, however, diversified selection of subjects is more appropriate for secondary schoolers.

Body 1:general education across a wide range of subjects的合理之处(2-3点)

例如全科学习可以促进学生的全面发展,开拓视野之类的。再者,全科学习可以帮助学生做好各行各业的职业初步储备。

Sampling answer:

Compared with solely imparting career-related knowledge, courses in great varieties are more suitable for the vast majority of students. A person who has studied a wide range of subjects could, to a large extent, realize his or her all-rounded development. More specifically, people will broaden their scope of knowledge as well as mental horizons through diverse learning. Another convincing argument is that the cultivations of various competences could help one make full preparations for work in different domains. Conversely, a man who just emphasizes on the subjects he or she takes interest in will have to face higher risks of unemployment triggered by a single career choice.

Body 2: specialized education当然也有可取之处,因为毕竟人的时间和精力都是有限的,想要样样精通还是很难的。但是,这样的specialized education不是特别适合中学生这个时段而已。

Sampling answer:

Indeed, I have to admit that acquiring career-oriented knowledge and job-related skills guarantees students’ expertise when entering career. It is simply because one’s time and endeavor are limited so that he or she cannot master every field in a short period of time – just as the proverb goes, Jack-of-all-trades is a master of none. However, specialized education means that students need to choose a profession they will take on in the future. When students are at such a young age, to figure out what subjects they are good at or have interest in is never easy. If they mis-choose a field that is impossible for them to excel in or they feel boring, that will be a big trouble.

Ending:所以重申观点,说明:我的观点是全科学习更好。

各位烤鸭,有没有发现,这样的文章一来比较具有辩证性,二来更能够说服别人,并不是说specialized education是不靠谱的,只是说不是那么适合中学生而已了。

中立:

开头段(AB结合起来会更好)+ A(合理性2点)+ 只有A(不够,不完美,缺陷)à B(合理性1点+but 反驳)+结尾段

当然根据具体情况,烤鸭们也可以写成:开头段(AB结合起来会更好)+ A(合理性1点à 只有A(不够,不完美,缺陷)à B(合理性2点)+结尾段

仍然以具体真题带大家来做具体说明:

V20180707

People have different views on how to reduce traffic congestion. Some think that governments should build more train and subway lines, while others think that building more and wider roads will reduce traffic congestion. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

Opening:引入话题,提出两者均可行,结合起来更好的观点。

For road conditions cannot keep pace with soaring car ownership, many cities suffer the torture of traffic congestions. Therefore, it is advocated that more and wider roads need to be equipped. As for me, however, the construction of railway transits is also feasible.

Body 1:先给出建造更多和更宽的路的合理之处:车能够有效分流,必然对于交通拥堵有极大的缓解。无论是新路的加建还是从原来2车道到后来4车道甚至6车道的扩建都能容纳更多的车辆,对于交通拥堵必定会有缓解的。

Body 2:然而,在很多城市中建造了更多和更宽的路之后,交通拥堵依旧存在。因为很多时候,交通拥堵是由交通事故导致的。(traffic accidents resulting from people’s violating traffic regulations, such as running the red light, over-speed driving)。所以此时,像subway and train lines这样的公共交通设施的引进更能从根本上缓解交通拥堵。

Ending: 简而言之,两种方法均能够减少交通拥堵,结合起来会更好。

l Agree or disagree

出题形式:

给出一个statement,然后问你是否同意该观点:To what extent do you agree or disagree?或者是类似的To what extent do you agree with this opinion?

回答重心:

此类题目虽然从表面上看,又是一个新的题型,但是如果抛开现象看本质的话,其实很多时候和discussion的题型差别不大。Agree or disagree的题目出题通常为两种形式:1. Two elements之间的博弈;2. Extreme words 极端词汇的出现。

1. Two elements

C13T1T2

Working or studying in a country where you have to speak a foreign language may bring about social and practical problems. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

SIMON-Q3

As well as making money, the companies also need to take some social responsibilities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

经典真题:

The environment problems facing today’s world are so great that there is little ordinary people can do to improve the situation. Government and large companies should be responsible for reducing the damage being done to the environment. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

虽然出题形式与discussion不同,但从以上题目,不难看出,这类题依然是两者之间的博弈。所以写出来应该与discussion类的题型相差不大。

2. Extreme words

V20191010

The best way to solve the increasing crime rate of young offenders is to educate parents about better parenting skills.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Simon- Q2

Some people who have been in prison become good citizens later, and it is often argued that these are the best people to talk to teenagers about the dangers of committing a crime. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

C9T2T2

Unpaid community service should be a compulsory part of high school programs (such as working for charities, teaching sports to younger generations). To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

而此类题目也是非常显而易见,每一道题中都包含一个极端词。当然,考生们在写作此类题目的时候是可以采取完全同意的态度,但是这样的写作方式并不是小编最推荐的。因为这样来写的话,在有限的时间内想到那么多的支持句难度系数是比较大的。所以,其实不妨以这样的极端词作为破题点去进行有效展开会更好。

伪套路:

有些伪套路强行给出的结构是definitely agree或者definitely disagree,甚至还会给出一些partly agree的表达方式。然后给出来的文章结构类似于:开头段+ disagree + agree + agree +结尾段。其实很多烤鸭们看完之后都是一头雾水,搞不清楚到底是咋回事。而且,很多时候,只是给出同意或者不同意的字眼,立场是不清晰的。例如上面提到的这个题目为例:The environment problems facing today’s world are so great that there is little ordinary people can do to improve the situation. Government and large companies should be responsible for reducing the damage being done to the environment. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

如果给出的观点是同意,自然,你认为的是环境保护的责任应该由政府和大公司来承担,而非个人。但是如果只是给出不同意的话,其实有两种可能性,一个是认为环境保护的责任应该由个人来承担,而非政府和大公司;一个是环境保护的责任应该由政府和大公司以及个人来共同承担。所以啊,直接陈述自己的观点就好,不用过于纠结到底是agree还是disagree的问题。

真套路:

如果以上的套路是伪套路的话,那么真正的套路应该如何来写呢?依旧是兵分两路来进行吧。

1. Two elements

之前说到,此类题目与discussion只是出题形式上的差异性,本质上并无太大差别。所以文章结构基本上都可以按照之前在discussion中文章结构展开的方式进行有效展开。此处,就不再一一赘述了。

2. Extreme words

在文章前面就说到了agree or disagree的题目中有一类是会出现极端词的情况,此类题目考生们在写作时,比较容易的展开方式是弱化绝对词/弱化极端词的形式,当然也可以采取完全同意或者完全不统一的方式都可以。

如果观点是弱化极端词的方式,文章结构大致是:开头段+trend(合理性)+extreme (不合理)+结尾。例如:

V20191010

The best way to solve the increasing crime rate of young offenders is to educate parents about better parenting skills.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

这道题问的是:教给父母好的教育方式是减少小孩儿犯罪的最佳方式,问同意与否?其实,遇到这道题,很多考生往往会觉得教给父母好的教育方式是有效方法,但不见得是最好的方式,那文章的逻辑架构自然而然的就可以写成:开头段+教给父母好的教育方式是有效的(合理之处2点)+ 说这样是最佳方法是不合理的&给出其他的方式,那些方法可能会更好+结尾段。详细来说:

Opening: 背景引入话题,指出自己的看法,不同意,持怀疑态度。

Sampling answer:

Youngsters in a mounting number embark on the criminal road, which has aroused so much concern over the public, from organized crime-experts to separate ordinary individuals. When some people advocate that teaching parents good parenting skills is the best way to reduce crime rate, I doubt whether such method will make sense or not.

Body 1: 客观评价,好的教育方式确实会对于减少小孩儿犯罪是有帮助的。例如好的教育方式其中好的交流方式,带来更好的亲子关系会对于减少犯罪率有更好的预防作用。Sampling answer:

Admittedly, good parenting skills from parents is an effective way to prevent their next generation from delinquency. Many parents these days know little about how to communicate with their children, especially teenagers. Providing communicating-skill training, parents are inclined to understand the needs and desires of the children and take preemptive steps to stop any tendency to commit crimes. For instance, instead of spending most of their free time on the internet chatting with their friends or playing a game, youngsters would like to join small chats with their parents who are adept at communicating or even other family activities. Such talk will definitely eliminate the possibility to indulge in destructive activities such as drugs and theft.

Body 2: 反驳,其实教给父母好的教育方式,但不一定有机会实施。因为工作压力较大,工作时间长,不见得有时间去陪伴他们的孩子。而其他的方法会更更有效。

Sampling answer:

However, confronted with soaring working pressure, parents can hardly have the opportunity to offer many supervision or instructions to their children even though they are equipped with better parenting skills. Additionally, with little company, it is unlikely for them to establish harmonious and close relationships with younger generation, regardless of parenting skills. Therefore, alternatives to reverse the increasing rate of young offenders are welcome. On the one hand, teachers and schools have significant roles to play – namely, to construct rational world outlook and decent values; enable children to distinguish between right from wrong. On the other hand, stricter supervision of the media is in need. Pornographic shows, video violence and something like blood and gore should be banned in daily TV shows that young people can touch easily.

Ending: 因而可以在结尾的时候总结,教给父母好的教育方式是有效的,但不见得是最佳方法。

Sampling answer:

To sum up, better parenting skills provided to parents can strike down the steps of growing young criminals. However, such method is not the most effective one – conversely, the blend of assistance from various aspects will be much more optimal.

当然,烤鸭们也可以写完全同意或者完全不统一这样的观点,只是在实际操作的时候,难度系数会更大一些。此处,可以借鉴一下Simon范文中的第二题:

Simon- Q2

Some people who have been in prison become good citizens later, and it is often argued that these are the best people to talk to teenagers about the dangers of committing a crime. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

如果持有的观点确实是完全同意的话,文章的逻辑结构自然可以这样写:开头段+ 回归正途的牢友教育孩子的合理之处+ 可以给出其他方法,但是那些都不合理 + 结尾段。

附上Simon给出的9分范文,供大家参考。

It is true that ex-prisoners can become normal, productive members of society. I completely agree with the idea that allowing such people to speak to teenagers about their experiences is the best way to discourage them from breaking the law.

In my opinion, teenagers are more likely to accept advice from someone who can speak from experience. Reformed offenders can tell young people about how they became involved in crime, the dangers of a criminal lifestyle, and what life in prison is really like. They can also dispel any ideas that teenagers may have about criminals leading glamorous lives. While adolescents are often indifferent to the guidance given by older people, I imagine that most of them would be extremely keen to hear the stories of an ex-offender. The vivid and perhaps shocking nature of these stories is likely to have a powerful impact.

The alternatives to using reformed criminals to educate teenagers about crime would be much less effective. One option would be for police officers to visit schools and talk to young people. This could be useful in terms of informing teens about what happens to lawbreakers when they are caught, but young people are often reluctant to take advice from figures of authority. A second option would be for school teachers to speak to their students about crime, but I doubt that students would see teachers as credible sources of information about this topic. Finally, educational films might be informative, but there would be no opportunity for young people to interact and ask questions.

In conclusion, I fully support the view that people who have turned their lives around after serving a prison sentence could help to deter teenagers from committing crimes.

关于“雅思写作高分何处寻,套路一下”的系列之一:文章逻辑结构的有效展开就说到这里。提醒广大烤鸭,有效识别真假套路,很重要哦~~

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