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AP美国历史提升技巧之第二部分

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在答完AP美国历史的第一部分——选择题和简答题以后,考生会有10分钟的休息时间。休息之后等待考生的是AP美国历史考试的第二部分,即考试时间为90分钟的问答题部分。这部分的第一个题型就是材料分析题。

一、材料分析题简介

 

在答完AP美国历史的第一部分——选择题和简答题以后,考生会有10分钟的休息时间。休息之后等待考生的是AP美国历史考试的第二部分即考试时间为90分钟的问答题部分。这部分的第一个题型就是材料分析题。

 

考生会有15分钟来阅读材料一般是8~12篇历史文献这些历史文献经常由新闻、演讲稿、信件、报道、法案、条例、条约、总统令、社论、漫画、图表等组成。然后要求考生40分钟内按照题目要求综合所有材料写出一篇论点明确的论文。这部分的话题极有可能是考生所不熟悉的话题,但大家也不用紧张因为需要作答的所有知识都已经呈现在几篇给出的史料之中。

 

典型的材料分析题会以如下的介绍开始:

 

Directions: Question 1 is based on the accompanying documents. The documents have been edited for purpose of this exercise. You are advised to spend 15 minutes planning and 40 minutes writing your answer.

 

Write your responses on the lined pages that follow the questions. In your response you should do the following.

 

? State a relevant thesis that directly addresses all parts of the question.

? Support the thesis or a relevant argument with evidence from all, or all but one, of the documents.

? Supports the thesis or a relevant argument by accounting for historical complexity, relating diverse historical evidence in a cohesive way.

? Focus your analysis of each document on at least one of the following: Author's point of view, author's purpose, audience, and/or historical context.

? Support your argument with analysis of historical examples outside the documents.

? Connect historical phenomena relevant to your argument to broader events or processes.

? Synthesize the elements above into a persuasive essay.

 

注:考生在考试中尤其要注意几个要点比如一定要有论点要回答所有给定的问题用到所有的资料,要结合当时的历史环境要表述出作者的目的要用到给定材料之外的补充资料,要以完整的论文形式表达等因为这些其实就是阅卷老师进行打分的依据。

 

然后会提供给考生8~12篇历史资料最后会给定一个问题如:

 

Question 1. Using information from the evidence (that follows) as well as your knowledge of the period, to what extent did the presidency of Andrew Jackson bring about a social, economic, and political revolution?

 

考生接下来就需要综合所有给定的资料,写出论文回答以上的问题。

 

材料分析题评分规则

材料分析题会以0~7的采分点来打分如下所示

 

A. Thesis (0~1 point possible)

Argumentation

1 point:

Presents a thesis that makes a historically defensible claim and responds to all parts of the question. The thesis must consist of one or more sentences located in one place, either in the introduction or the conclusion.

Scoring Note: Neither the introduction nor the conclusion is necessarily limited to a single paragraph.

 

B. Document analysis (0-3 points possible)

Analyzing evidence

1 point:

Utilizes the content of the majority of the documents to support the stated thesis or a relevant argument.

2 point:

Utilizes the content of the majority of the documents to support the stated thesis or a relevant argument.

AND

Explains the significance of the author's point of view, historical context, and/or audience for at least four documents.

3 point:

Utilizes the content of the all or all but one of the documents to support the stated thesis or a relevant argument.

AND

Explains the significance of the author's point of view, author's purpose, historical context, and/or audience for all or all but one document.

 

C.  Using Evidence Beyond the Documents (0-1 point possible)

Contextualization and Argumentation

1 point:

Situates the argument by explaining the broader historical events, development, or processes immediately relevant to the question.

Scoring Note: Contextualization requires using knowledge not found in the documents to situate the argument within broader historical events, developments, or processes immediately relevant to the question. The contextualization point is not awarded for merely a phrase or reference, but instead requires an explanation, typically consisting of multiple sentences or a full paragraph.

 

D. Evidence beyond the document (0~1points)

Evidence beyond the document

1 point:

Provides an example or additional piece of specific evidence beyond those found in the documents to support or qualify the argument.

Scoring Notes:

This example must be different from the evidence used to earn other points on this rubric.

This point is not awarded for merely a phrase or reference. Responses need to reference an additional piece of specific evidence and explain how that evidence supports or qualifies the argument.

 

E. Synthesis (0~1 point possible)

Synthesis

1 point:

Extends the argument by explaining the connection between the argument and ONE of the following:

A development in a different historical period, situation, era or geographical area.

A course theme and/or approach to history that is not the focus of the essay (such as political, economic, social, cultural, or intellectual history)

A different discipline or field of inquiry (such as economics, government and politics, art history, or anthropology) (Note: For European and World History only).

Scoring Note: The synthesis point requires an explanation of the connections to different historical period, situation, era, or geographical area, and is not awarded for merely a phrase or reference.

 

材料分析题提升技巧

(一) 分析题目

材料分析题要求考生根据自己掌握的知识来分析材料,回答问题。对于答案,其实并没有一个固定的错对之分。只要你能够提出论点,并且用材料支持自己的论点就会给你分数。就好像你是一个历史学家,第一次听到肯尼迪总统的一段录音带或者发现了一封马丁··金的长信,或者和林登·约翰逊进行了一次面谈或者开始用数据分析1900年美国贫困地区的分布,考生要根据这些原始资料得出自己的结论。

 

考生在拿到材料分析题目以后,千万牢记先不要去读材料最先要做的是读懂题目。分析题目的第一步则是需要把题目中给定的关键词画出,重点是要出事件及时间以便进一步的分析。如例题给定如下:

 

· Using information from the evidence (that follows)as well as your knowledge of the period, to what extent did the presidency of Andrew Jackson bring about a social, economic, and political revolution?

 

可以把以下关键词画出:

 

· Using information from the evidence (that follows) as well as your knowledge of the period, to what extent did the presidency of Andrew Jackson bring about a social, economic, and political revolution?

 

画出关键,题目的梗概便呈现在面前。即安德鲁·杰克逊总统在社会、经济和政治方面改革的程度。然后把题目归类,看看题目属于哪种类型。在材料分析题中最常见的三种题型为“程度题(to what extent”、“比较题compare/contrast变化延续题continuity and change在此基础上去判断出你需要根据问题大致得出什么样的结论,借此形成你答题的大致思路。

 

接下来,考生需要按照给定时间顺序构建一个与事件相关的数据只要是与问题沾边的事件都可以构建在这个数据库中。如果完全没有想法,则可以按照以下思路来构建经济上如何,政治上如何外交上如何

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