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剑桥雅思真题12听力解析

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 17-06-06
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还没来得及和雅思分手的考生们想必都对剑桥12非常感兴趣,毕竟BC公布的最新题代表着雅思考试的新风向,是我们备考最好的依据和材料。没有让我们失望的是,剑12终于在5月份于中国大陆首先发布了,本文中朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师将带领大家领略剑12中听力部分的奥妙。

 

听力一向是听说读写四科考试中相对比较稳定的一科,无论是场景内容还是题型种类都比较具有延续性,而剑12的四套听力题中开始出现了新的元素,当然也有继承剑桥系列真题的传统元素。本文就将从两方面着手来给大家展示其中的革新与传承。

 

12听力之新

在剑12的四套听力题中出现了三个新的元素,分别是新题型,新花样和新霸主。

 

新题型

大家请看剑12 Test 6 Section 3中的部分题目:

Questions 26-30

Complete the flow-chart below

Choose FIVE answers from the box and write the correct letter, A-G, next to Questions 26-30

A bullet

B film

C notes

D structure

E student paper

F textbook

G documentary

 

 

 

How James will write his paper on the Vikings

He   will read a 26__________ and choose his topic.

                                            

He   will borrow a 27____________ from Beth.

                                            

He   will plan the 28_____________ of the paper.

                                            

He   will read some source material and write 29___________.

                                            

He   will write the paper using 30_______________.

                                            

He   will write the complete paper.

 

这种题型被称为流程配对题型,估计大家主要在阅读中见过此类题型吧,剑12将其引进到了听力考试中,且处于Section 3, 难度偏大,这就是剑12听力新题型,这一题型结合了传统填空与配对的特征,既有所听即所得的题目,也有需要将选项与原文同义转换并且理解的题目,我们来看这篇的原文:

James:  Could you ask for some advice about writing the paper I’m writing on about the Vikings? I have to do that this week, and I am a bit stuck.

Beth:  Of course. Have you decided yet what to write about?

James:  No. I have not. There is so much that seems interesting-Viking settlement in other countries, trade, mythology...

Beth:  Well, what I suggest is that you read an assignment a student wrote last year, Q26 which is kept in the library. It’s short and well focused, and I’M sure you will find it helpful.I’ll give you the details in a moment. Textbooks usually cover so many topics, it can be very difficult to choose just one.

James:  OK. I’ve a DVD of the film about the Vikings that came out earlier this year. Should I watch that again?

Beth:  If it’s the one I’m thinking of, hmm, I’d ignore it- it’s more fantasy than reality. But I’ve got a recording of a documentary that you should watch.  Q27 It makes some interesting and provocative points, which I think will help you to focus your topic.

James:  Right! So then should I work out an outline?

Beth: Yes, just heading for different sections at this stage.  Q28 And then you should start looking for suitable articles and books to draw on, and take notes Q29 which you organise according to those headings.

James:  I see.

Beth:  Then put short phases and sentences as bullets points under each heading.  Q30 Make sure that this skeleton makes sense and flows properly, before writing the paper in full.

James: OK. Thanks, that’s very helpful.

 

26题原文讲的是an assignment a student wrote, 答案是E student paper, 而原文出现的textbook对应选项F则是干扰;第27题的答案则是原文G documentary; 28题答案是D structure, 而原文却是outline这个解释说明,2930题的答案C noteA bullet points也是原文展现。可见,这个新题型其实就是将之前的剑桥系列中的老题型加以结合后的产物。

 

不过,之所以一直在新题型上加引号是因为剑桥8 Test 4 Section 3其实出现过长相极其相似的题型,只是以填空的形式存在,遵循所听即所得原则,而剑12中不完全遵循这一原则,同时也需要听力理解;另外在2014年发布的《雅思官方指南》Test 5 Section 3中有一样的选择类流程配对,题目如下:

OG Test 5 Section 3

Questions 26-30

Complete the flow-chart below

Choose FIVE answers from the box and write the correct letter, A-G, next to Questions 26-30

A website

B locations

C designs

D TV advertising campaigns

E quality

F values

G software programs

 

History of Furniture Rossi

The   product 26_________ led to wider customer base.

                                                 

Greater   customer demand meant other 27____________ were needed.

                                                 

Better   28____________ increased overall profitability.

                                                 

Changes   to the 29__________ were brought on by customer complaints.

                                                 

Furniture   Rossi wants to make people move aware of its 30 _______________.

 

这题中是将原文的storehouse与选项中的locations进行上下义的配对,其他几乎都是原文对应选项,但是剑12将它的难度升级了一个级别,所以大家在后期备考中要注意这类题型。

 

新题型解决

那么这类题型要如何解决呢,一是大家要将之前的填空与选择做题方法结合:填空的定位和选择的同义转换都要在读题时一一考虑到,二就是预测变得相当重要。比如我们来看剑12中另一个此题型的例子:

Test 7 Section 3

Questions 21-26

Complete the flow-chart below

Choose SIX answers from the box and write the correct letter, A-G, next to Questions 21-26

A   patterns        B names           C sources         D questions

E   employees     F solutions       G   headings       H officials

 

STAGES IN DOING A TOURISM CASE STUDY

REASEARCH

Locate   and read relevant articles, noting key information and also 21 ___________

Identify   a problem or need

Select   interviewees- these may be site 22___________, visitors or city   23_____________

Prepare   and carry out interviews. If possible, collect statistics.

Check   whether 24____________ of interviewees can be used

 

ANALYSIS

Select   relevant information and try to identify 25____________

Decide   on the best form of visuals

 

WRITING THE CASE STUDY

Give   some background before writing the main sections

Do   NOT end with 26__________

 

21题定位应是名词articleskey information, 而答案应是与它们并列的信息;2223题从题中可以预测出一定是人物一类的答案,所以答案锁定在E, H这两个选项;24题最容易预测,被采访者的什么信息可以被使用,结合选项,最有可能的就是选项B, 当然这是预测,最终答案要以听力原文为准;25, 26题各自都在一个单独的小标题下,所以对应的小标题是它们的首部定位信息,26读题必定要注意的是否定信息,根据以往的雅思听力考法,此类题目喜欢用肯定信息来进行干扰,这也属于预测范畴,即这题应该是有干扰信息的,不要被迷惑了。我们来看原文:

NATALIE:  Dave, I’m worried about our case study. I’ve done a bit of reading, but I’m not sure what is involved in actually writing a case study- I missed the lecture whether Dr Baker talked us through it.

DAVE:  OK, well, it’s quite straightforward. We’ve got our focus- that’s tourism at the Horton Castle site. And you said you’d done some reading about it.

NATALIE:  Yes, I found some articles and made notes of the main points.

DAVE:  Did you remember to keep a record of where you got the information from? Q21

NATALIE:  Sure, I know what a pain it is when you forget that.

DAVE:  OK, we can compare what we’ve read. Then we have to decide on a particular problem or need at our site. And then think about who we’re going to interview to get more information.

NATALIE:  OK. So who’d that be? The people who work there? And presumably some of the tourist too?

DAVE:  Yes, both those groups. Q22 So we’ll have to go to the site to do that, I suppose. But we might also do some of our interviewing away from the site-- we could even contact some people here in the city, like administrators involved in overseeing tourism. Q23

NATALIE:  OK. So we’ll need to think about our interview questions and fix times and places for the meetings. It’s all going to take a lot of time.

DAVE: Mmm. And if we can, we should ask our interviewees if they can bring along some numerical data that we can add to support our findings.

NATALIE:  And photographs?

DAVE:  I think we have plenty of those already. But Dr Baker also said we have to establish with our interviewees whether we can identify them in our case study, or whether they want to be anonymous. Q24

NATALIE:  Oh. I wouldn’t have thought of that. OK, once we’ve got all this information, I suppose we have to analyse it.

DAVE:  Yes, put it all together and choose what’s relevant to the problem we’re focusing on, and analyse that carefully to find out if we can identify any trends or regularities there. Q25 That’s the main thing at this stage, rather than concentrating on details or lots of facts.

NATALIE:  OK, And then once we’ve analysed that, what next?

DAVE:  Well, then we need to think about what we do with the data we’ve selected to make it as clear as possible to our readers. Things like graphs, or tables, or charts...

NATALIE:  Right.

DAVE: Then the case study itself is mostly quite standard; we begin by presenting the problem, and giving some background, then go through the main sections, but the thing that surprised me is that in a normal report we’d end with some suggestions to deal with the problem or need we identified, but in a case study we end up with a question or a series of questions to our readers, and they decide what ought to be done. Q26

NATALIE:  Oh, I hadn’t realized that.

 

答案分别是:21 C 22 E 23 H 24 B 25 A 26 F21题与题目并列的信息sources在原文中被解释为keep a record of where you got the information from; 22, 23题确实是关于人物的选项,但是都被解释说明了——employee被解释为the people who work there, officials被解释为administrators involved in overseeing tourism, 略难,但是只要预测好,也只有H这一个选项符合这里的答案;24题想理解的关键主要在于anonymous(匿名的)一词,很多同学估计会比较陌生,从而导致答案缺失,但是预测加上上一句的identify them in our case study, 就可以准确无误地选择出B; 25题考察的是同义词转换regularitiespatterns的理解;26题的干扰是D选项questions, 这是说要以之结尾,而答案是令他们surprisedF选项solutions

 

以上这个流程配对没有一题是原文和选项直接对应的,全部都需要同义转换或者解释说明,所以有一定难度,但是只要预测对,86的此类配对比传统配对还是好应付一些的。

 

新花样

Test 8 Section 2

Questions 15-20

Label the map below

Write the correct letter, A-I, NEXT TO question 15-20

15 The Reynolds                            _____________

16 The Thumb                                _____________

17 The Museum                             _____________

18 The Contemporary Art Gallery   _____________

19 The Warner                                _____________

20 Nucleus                                     _____________

 

这是剑12中的地图题,是不是一看就和之前剑桥中的地图不太一样呀?这是新花样之一,另外,图中除了三条路和两个已知地点外,还有一些新颖且隐藏的已知信息是之前的剑桥系列听力中未曾出现过的,比如winding road(连续弯路)这一短语在之前的地图中从未听过。大家请看原文:

The Sheepmarket is one of the main centers for art and history in the whole of the country. If you look at your map, you’ll see some of the main attractions there. Most visitors start from Crawley Road, at the bottom of the map. The Reynolds House is one of the oldest houses in the city, and is open to the public. It’s on the north side of Crawley Road, next to the footpath that leads to the public gardens. Q15

 

The area’s particularly interesting from its unusual sculptures. ‘The thumb’ is just what its name suggests, but it’s about 10 meters high. You’ll see it on Hill Road, across the road from the Bank. Q16

 

The Museum’s got a particularly fine collection of New Zealand landscapes. It’s on the east side of the Sheepmarket, on City Road. It’s on the other side of the road from the public gardens, immediately facing the junction with Hill Road. Q17

 

The Contemporary Art Gallery is on a little road that leads off Station Square, not far from the public gardens. The road ends at the gallery-- it doesn't go anywhere else. Q18 That’s open every day except Mondays.

 

The Warner Gallery specializes in 19th-century art. It’s on City Road, near the junction with Crawly Road, on the same side of the road as the public gardens. Q19 It’s on weekdays from 9 to 5, and entry is free.

 

Finally, if you’re interested in purchasing high quality artwork, the place to go is Nucleus. You need to go from Crawley Road up through Station Square and east along Hill Road until you get to a small winding road turning off. O up there and it’s on your right--if you go to City Road you’ve gone too far. Q20

 

除了第20题的winding road这一新颖的定位信息外,第15题也需要考生在听得时候仔细识别出H左边的小footpath这一隐藏小路才能选出这一地点;而16题的Hill Road也是一条弯路,一不小心也很容易找错地方;18题讲了一句a little road that leads off Station Square估计很多同学也会被迷惑。

 

12听力新花样主要就体现在地图这一题型上,虽说全书只出现了这一个地图,却给我们带来很多新的讯息,在之后的听力地图题上,大家需要更加细心,反应更加灵敏才能够完全掌控,一旦百密一疏,则很容易满盘皆输。

 

新花样解决

要解决这一地图新花样带来的难点,除了剑12这篇中涉及到的一些隐藏信息以及信息观察之外,我们还需要掌握以下常见地图类相关词汇:

马路交叉:intersection, junction, crossroads, crossing

转弯处:turning, corner

对面:opposite

特殊位置:top, bottom, top-right hand corner

 

新霸主

每本剑桥真题有4套听力,之前的剑10两篇Section 4是商业场景,剑11有一篇Section 4是商业场景,而剑12又出现了两篇Section 4是商业场景,分别是:

Test 5 Section 4 Four business values

其中出现的较难商业词汇:collaboration, industriousness, creativity, excellence, boost sales, advertising campaign, market share, side effects

Test 6 Section 4 Conflict at work

其中出现的较难相关词汇:bullying, superiority, democratic, mediator, structural, conflict, Chief Executive

可见,商业场景逐渐演变为雅思听力Section 4的新霸主,之前一直都是生物场景处在最高频的地位,通过剑12我们可以推测这一地位要变得动摇了,所以在之后的备考中,各位考生要注意商业场景词汇的扩充与掌握。

 

新霸主备考

这里给大家一些商业类参考词汇:


 

corporate/enterprise公司

organization组织

overheads/outlay经费

investment投资

capital资本

interest rates利率

stock股票

share股份

stock market股市

issue发行

market share市场份额

sales销售额

(illegal) profit利润

takeover收购

outlet商店

chain连锁

retail零售

wholesale批发

marketing市场营销

campaign战略

advertising广告

product产品

production生产

import进口

export出口

manufacture生产

manufacturer出厂商

distributor分销商

storehouse/warehouse仓库

competition竞争

cooperation合作

training培训

innovation创新

favorable terms优惠的条款

management team/ layers管理层senior roles高管

employer雇主

employee雇员

staff员工

applicant申请者

strike罢工

corporate crime集团犯罪

embezzlement盗用,侵吞

fraud诈骗


 

12听力之旧

12对于之前的剑4-11的传承主要体现在题型、难度以及前三部分的场景内容上:

 

选择题并未喧宾夺主

四套听力填空与选择的分配分别是27:13, 20:20, 23:17, 24:16, 除了其中一套是填空选择各一半,其他都是填空题多于选择题,这也与今年以来的机经相符合,所以大家不必惊慌于选择题增多这样的说法,那只是个别考次的特殊情况,大家可以看具体的题型分布:


Test   5

Test   6

Test   7

Test   8

Section   1

笔记填空 10

笔记填空 10

笔记填空 10

笔记填空 10

Section   2

单选 4+多选 2+配对   4

单选 5+配对5

多选 4+单选3+表格填空 3

单选 4+地图配对   6

Section   3

单选 3+填空 7

单选 5+流程配对 5

流程配对 6+单选   4

表格填空 4+配对   6

Section   4

笔记填空 10

笔记填空 10

笔记填空 10

笔记填空 10

 

难易交替

平时大家比较关心的语速加快的问题,在剑12中并没有体现出来,整本书都是以与剑1011类似的速度展开,并未明显加快,所以大家不必担心。但是,相比剑桥4-11, 12Section 3Section 4的难度明显增加,同义转换的应用更加复杂,要写的词也明显难于之前的填空题,如bullying, superiority, democratic等词都出现在了剑12的答案中。

 

传统场景

12Section 1, 2依旧是以旅游和咨询场景为主,在场景和词汇上都没有出现新花样,也没有增加难度;Section 3全部是图书馆、课程讨论或作业讨论、作业反馈场景等学习类场景。

 


Test   5

Test   6

Test   7

Test   8

Section   1

Family   excursion

Events   during Kenton Festival

Public   Library

Applicant   inquiry

Section   2

Talk   to kitchen assistant

Theater   trip to Munich

Fitness   holidays

Visiting   the Sheepmarket area

Section   3

Paper   on public libraries

Scandinavian   Studies

Doing   a tourism case study

presentation

Section   4

Four   business values

Conflict

At   work

The   effects of environmental change on birds

Noise   in Cities

 

综上,无论是剑12或剑12,大家只要了解它们的考法,把握好它们的解决方案,都可以在临场考试中得心应手,一呼百应。


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